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Review

Fungal Proteases as Emerging Biocatalysts to Meet the Current Challenges and Recent Developments in Biomedical Therapies: An Updated Review

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College of Life Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050025, China
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Department of Zoology, University of Sialkot, Sialkot 51310, Pakistan
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Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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Department of Zoology, Government College Women University, Sialkot 51040, Pakistan
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Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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Institute of Food Science & Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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Food Science and Technology Program, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University (BNU-HKBU) United International College, Zhuhai 519087, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David S. Perlin and Craig Faulds
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020109
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biotechnology and Application)
With the increasing world population, demand for industrialization has also increased to fulfill humans’ living standards. Fungi are considered a source of essential constituents to produce the biocatalytic enzymes, including amylases, proteases, lipases, and cellulases that contain broad-spectrum industrial and emerging applications. The present review discussed the origin, nature, mechanism of action, emerging aspects of genetic engineering for designing novel proteases, genome editing of fungal strains through CRISPR technology, present challenges and future recommendations of fungal proteases. The emerging evidence revealed that fungal proteases show a protective role to many environmental exposures and discovered that an imbalance of protease inhibitors and proteases in the epithelial barriers leads to the protection of chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation. Moreover, mitoproteases recently were found to execute intense proteolytic processes that are crucial for mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis function, including mitochondrial biogenesis, protein synthesis, and apoptosis. The emerging evidence revealed that CRISPR/Cas9 technology had been successfully developed in various filamentous fungi and higher fungi for editing of specific genes. In addition to medical importance, fungal proteases are extensively used in different industries such as foods to prepare butter, fruits, juices, and cheese, and to increase their shelf life. It is concluded that hydrolysis of proteins in industries is one of the most significant applications of fungal enzymes that led to massive usage of proteomics. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal enzymes; proteases; catalytical properties; recent developments; genetic engineering; mitoproteases fungal enzymes; proteases; catalytical properties; recent developments; genetic engineering; mitoproteases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Naeem, M.; Manzoor, S.; Abid, M.-U.-H.; Tareen, M.B.K.; Asad, M.; Mushtaq, S.; Ehsan, N.; Amna, D.; Xu, B.; Hazafa, A. Fungal Proteases as Emerging Biocatalysts to Meet the Current Challenges and Recent Developments in Biomedical Therapies: An Updated Review. J. Fungi 2022, 8, 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020109

AMA Style

Naeem M, Manzoor S, Abid M-U-H, Tareen MBK, Asad M, Mushtaq S, Ehsan N, Amna D, Xu B, Hazafa A. Fungal Proteases as Emerging Biocatalysts to Meet the Current Challenges and Recent Developments in Biomedical Therapies: An Updated Review. Journal of Fungi. 2022; 8(2):109. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naeem, Muhammad, Saba Manzoor, Mashhud-Ul-Hasan Abid, Muhammad B.K. Tareen, Mirza Asad, Sajida Mushtaq, Nazia Ehsan, Dua Amna, Baojun Xu, and Abu Hazafa. 2022. "Fungal Proteases as Emerging Biocatalysts to Meet the Current Challenges and Recent Developments in Biomedical Therapies: An Updated Review" Journal of Fungi 8, no. 2: 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020109

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