Next Article in Journal
Enhancing the Biocontrol Potential of the Entomopathogenic Fungus in Multiple Respects via the Overexpression of a Transcription Factor Gene MaSom1
Next Article in Special Issue
Fungal Endophytes: A Potential Source of Antibacterial Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Crosstalk between Yeast Cell Plasma Membrane Ergosterol Content and Cell Wall Stiffness under Acetic Acid Stress Involving Pdr18
Previous Article in Special Issue
Volatiles Produced by Yeasts Related to Prunus avium and P. cerasus Fruits and Their Potentials to Modulate the Behaviour of the Pest Rhagoletis cerasi Fruit Flies
 
 
Article

Toxic Indoor Air Is a Potential Risk of Causing Immuno Suppression and Morbidity—A Pilot Study

1
SelexLab Oy, Kalevankatu 17 A, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
2
Co-op Bionautit, Viikinkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Microbiology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
The Finnish Centre for Alternative Methods, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Arvo Ylpön katu 34, 33014 Tampere, Finland
5
Medical Center Kruunuhaka Oy, Kaisaniemenkatu 8B a, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laurent Dufossé
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020104
Received: 22 November 2021 / Revised: 28 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
We aimed to establish an etiology-based connection between the symptoms experienced by the occupants of a workplace and the presence in the building of toxic dampness microbiota. The occupants (5/6) underwent a medical examination and urine samples (2/6) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for mycotoxins at two time-points. The magnitude of inhaled water was estimated. Building-derived bacteria and fungi were identified and assessed for toxicity. Separate cytotoxicity tests using human THP-1 macrophages were performed from the office’s indoor air water condensates. Office-derived indoor water samples (n = 4/4) were toxic to human THP-1 macrophages. Penicillium, Acremonium sensu lato, Aspergillus ochraceus group and Aspergillus section Aspergillus grew from the building material samples. These colonies were toxic in boar sperm tests (n = 11/32); four were toxic to BHK-21 cells. Mycophenolic acid, which is a potential immunosuppressant, was detected in the initial and follow-up urine samples of (2/2) office workers who did not take immunosuppressive drugs. Their urinary mycotoxin profiles differed from household and unrelated controls. Our study suggests that the presence of mycotoxins in indoor air is linked to the morbidity of the occupants. The cytotoxicity test of the indoor air condensate is a promising tool for risk assessment in moisture-damaged buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air water; dampness and mold hypersensitivity syndrome; mycotoxins; clinical toxicology; sick building syndrome; urine indoor air water; dampness and mold hypersensitivity syndrome; mycotoxins; clinical toxicology; sick building syndrome; urine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vaali, K.; Tuomela, M.; Mannerström, M.; Heinonen, T.; Tuuminen, T. Toxic Indoor Air Is a Potential Risk of Causing Immuno Suppression and Morbidity—A Pilot Study. J. Fungi 2022, 8, 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020104

AMA Style

Vaali K, Tuomela M, Mannerström M, Heinonen T, Tuuminen T. Toxic Indoor Air Is a Potential Risk of Causing Immuno Suppression and Morbidity—A Pilot Study. Journal of Fungi. 2022; 8(2):104. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vaali, Kirsi, Marja Tuomela, Marika Mannerström, Tuula Heinonen, and Tamara Tuuminen. 2022. "Toxic Indoor Air Is a Potential Risk of Causing Immuno Suppression and Morbidity—A Pilot Study" Journal of Fungi 8, no. 2: 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020104

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop