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The Destructive Tree Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Originates from the Laurosilva Forests of East Asia

Phytophthora Research Centre, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, 83131 Nußdorf, Germany
Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham GU10 4LH, Surrey, UK
River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
Departament of Bioregulation and Biointeraction, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Laboratory of Ecological Plant Physiology, CzechGlobe, Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Centre for Agricultural Research, Plant Protection Institute, ELKH, H-1022 Budapest, Hungary
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katrina Maria Ramonell
J. Fungi 2021, 7(3), 226;
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
As global plant trade expands, tree disease epidemics caused by pathogen introductions are increasing. Since ca 2000, the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum has caused devastating epidemics in Europe and North America, spreading as four ancient clonal lineages, each of a single mating type, suggesting different geographical origins. We surveyed laurosilva forests for P. ramorum around Fansipan mountain on the Vietnam-China border and on Shikoku and Kyushu islands, southwest Japan. The surveys yielded 71 P. ramorum isolates which we assigned to eight new lineages, IC1 to IC5 from Vietnam and NP1 to NP3 from Japan, based on differences in colony characteristics, gene x environment responses and multigene phylogeny. Molecular phylogenetic trees and networks revealed the eight Asian lineages were dispersed across the topology of the introduced European and North American lineages. The deepest node within P. ramorum, the divergence of lineages NP1 and NP2, was estimated at 0.5 to 1.6 Myr. The Asian lineages were each of a single mating type, and at some locations, lineages of “opposite” mating type were present, suggesting opportunities for inter-lineage recombination. Based on the high level of phenotypic and phylogenetic diversity in the sample populations, the coalescence results and the absence of overt host symptoms, we conclude that P. ramorum comprises many anciently divergent lineages native to the laurosilva forests between eastern Indochina and Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemic; lineages; phylogeny; evolutionary history; mating types; biosecurity epidemic; lineages; phylogeny; evolutionary history; mating types; biosecurity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, T.; Horta Jung, M.; Webber, J.F.; Kageyama, K.; Hieno, A.; Masuya, H.; Uematsu, S.; Pérez-Sierra, A.; Harris, A.R.; Forster, J.; Rees, H.; Scanu, B.; Patra, S.; Kudláček, T.; Janoušek, J.; Corcobado, T.; Milenković, I.; Nagy, Z.; Csorba, I.; Bakonyi, J.; Brasier, C.M. The Destructive Tree Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Originates from the Laurosilva Forests of East Asia. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 226.

AMA Style

Jung T, Horta Jung M, Webber JF, Kageyama K, Hieno A, Masuya H, Uematsu S, Pérez-Sierra A, Harris AR, Forster J, Rees H, Scanu B, Patra S, Kudláček T, Janoušek J, Corcobado T, Milenković I, Nagy Z, Csorba I, Bakonyi J, Brasier CM. The Destructive Tree Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Originates from the Laurosilva Forests of East Asia. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(3):226.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Thomas, Marília Horta Jung, Joan F. Webber, Koji Kageyama, Ayaka Hieno, Hayato Masuya, Seiji Uematsu, Ana Pérez-Sierra, Anna R. Harris, Jack Forster, Helen Rees, Bruno Scanu, Sneha Patra, Tomáš Kudláček, Josef Janoušek, Tamara Corcobado, Ivan Milenković, Zoltán Nagy, Ildikó Csorba, József Bakonyi, and Clive M. Brasier. 2021. "The Destructive Tree Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Originates from the Laurosilva Forests of East Asia" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 3: 226.

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