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In Vitro or In Vivo Models, the Next Frontier for Unraveling Interactions between Malassezia spp. and Hosts. How Much Do We Know?

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Grupo de Investigación Celular y Molecular de Microorganismos Patógenos (CeMoP), Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 N° 18A—12, Bogotá, Bogotá D.C. 11711, Colombia
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Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biomembranes, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6030155
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergent Fungal Models for Genetics and Cell Biology)
Malassezia is a lipid-dependent genus of yeasts known for being an important part of the skin mycobiota. These yeasts have been associated with the development of skin disorders and cataloged as a causal agent of systemic infections under specific conditions, making them opportunistic pathogens. Little is known about the host–microbe interactions of Malassezia spp., and unraveling this implies the implementation of infection models. In this mini review, we present different models that have been implemented in fungal infections studies with greater attention to Malassezia spp. infections. These models range from in vitro (cell cultures and ex vivo tissue), to in vivo (murine models, rabbits, guinea pigs, insects, nematodes, and amoebas). We additionally highlight the alternative models that reduce the use of mammals as model organisms, which have been gaining importance in the study of fungal host–microbe interactions. This is due to the fact that these systems have been shown to have reliable results, which correlate with those obtained from mammalian models. Examples of alternative models are Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Tenebrio molitor, and Galleria mellonella. These are invertebrates that have been implemented in the study of Malassezia spp. infections in order to identify differences in virulence between Malassezia species. View Full-Text
Keywords: in vitro; in vivo; animal model; Malassezia; infection; host–pathogen interaction; Galleria mellonella in vitro; in vivo; animal model; Malassezia; infection; host–pathogen interaction; Galleria mellonella
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Torres, M.; de Cock, H.; Celis Ramírez, A.M. In Vitro or In Vivo Models, the Next Frontier for Unraveling Interactions between Malassezia spp. and Hosts. How Much Do We Know? J. Fungi 2020, 6, 155.

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