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Open AccessArticle

Thermogenic Characterization and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida auris by Microcalorimetry

BIH Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, via San Zeno 37, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007, India
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, 6532 SZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, 6532 SZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(4), 103;
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida auris)
Candida auris has emerged globally as a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Isolates of C. auris are reported to be misidentified as Candida haemulonii. The aim of the study was to compare the heat production profiles of C. auris strains and other Candida spp. and evaluate their antifungal susceptibility using isothermal microcalorimetry. The minimum heat inhibitory concentrations (MHIC) and the minimum biofilm fungicidal concentration (MBFC) were defined as the lowest antimicrobial concentration leading to the lack of heat flow production after 24 h for planktonic cells and 48 h for biofilm-embedded cells. C. auris exhibited a peculiar heat production profile. Thermogenic parameters of C. auris suggested a slower growth rate compared to Candida lusitaniae and a different distinct heat profile compared to that of C. haemulonii species complex strains, although they all belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. Amphotericin B MHIC and MBFC were 0.5 µg/mL and ≥8 µg/mL, respectively. C. auris strains were non-susceptible to fluconazole at tested concentrations (MHIC > 128 µg/mL, MBFC > 256 µg/mL). The heat curve represents a fingerprint of C. auris, which distinguished it from other species. Treatment based on amphotericin B represents a potential therapeutic option for C. auris infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida auris; biofilm; antifungal resistance; isothermal microcalorimetry; Metschnikowiaceae clade Candida auris; biofilm; antifungal resistance; isothermal microcalorimetry; Metschnikowiaceae clade
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Di Luca, M.; Koliszak, A.; Karbysheva, S.; Chowdhary, A.; Meis, J.F.; Trampuz, A. Thermogenic Characterization and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida auris by Microcalorimetry. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 103.

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