Next Article in Journal
A Week of Oral Terbinafine Pulse Regimen Every Three Months to Treat all Dermatophyte Onychomycosis
Next Article in Special Issue
The Dysbiosis and Inter-Kingdom Synergy Model in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis, a New Perspective in Pathogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Getting Histoplasmosis on the Map of International Recommendations for Patients with Advanced HIV Disease
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New Front in Microbial Warfare—Delivery of Antifungal Effectors by the Type VI Secretion System
Open AccessReview

Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenicity and Polymicrobial Interactions: Lessons beyond Koch’s Postulates

1
Integrated Program in Biomedical Sciences, College of Graduate Health Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
2
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5030081
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 3 September 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
While Koch’s Postulates have established rules for microbial pathogenesis that have been extremely beneficial for monomicrobial infections, new studies regarding polymicrobial pathogenesis defy these standards. The explosion of phylogenetic sequence data has revolutionized concepts of microbial interactions on and within the host. However, there remains a paucity of functional follow-up studies to delineate mechanisms driven by such interactions and how they shape health or disease. That said, one particular microbial pairing, the fungal opportunist Candida albicans and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, has received much attention over the last decade. Therefore, the objective of this review is to discuss the multi-faceted mechanisms employed by these two ubiquitous human pathogens during polymicrobial growth, including how they: establish and persist in inter-Kingdom biofilms, tolerate antimicrobial therapy, co-invade host tissue, exacerbate quorum sensing and staphylococcal toxin production, and elicit infectious synergism. Commentary regarding new challenges and remaining questions related to future discovery of this fascinating fungal–bacterial interaction is also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; Staphylococcus aureus; polymicrobial; synergism; co-infection; biofilm; quorum sensing; toxin; fungal-bacterial Candida albicans; Staphylococcus aureus; polymicrobial; synergism; co-infection; biofilm; quorum sensing; toxin; fungal-bacterial
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Todd, O.A.; Peters, B.M. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenicity and Polymicrobial Interactions: Lessons beyond Koch’s Postulates. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 81.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop