While Koch’s Postulates have established rules for microbial pathogenesis that have been extremely beneficial for monomicrobial infections, new studies regarding polymicrobial pathogenesis defy these standards. The explosion of phylogenetic sequence data has revolutionized concepts of microbial interactions on and within the host. However, there remains a paucity of functional follow-up studies to delineate mechanisms driven by such interactions and how they shape health or disease. That said, one particular microbial pairing, the fungal opportunist Candida albicans
and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus
, has received much attention over the last decade. Therefore, the objective of this review is to discuss the multi-faceted mechanisms employed by these two ubiquitous human pathogens during polymicrobial growth, including how they: establish and persist in inter-Kingdom biofilms, tolerate antimicrobial therapy, co-invade host tissue, exacerbate quorum sensing and staphylococcal toxin production, and elicit infectious synergism. Commentary regarding new challenges and remaining questions related to future discovery of this fascinating fungal–bacterial interaction is also provided.
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