Central nervous system infections due to Aspergillus
spp and other hyaline molds such as Fusarium
spp are rare but fatal conditions. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) tends to occur as a result of hematogenous dissemination among immunocompromised patients, and by local extension or direct inoculation secondary to trauma in immunocompetent hosts. Efforts should be directed to confirm the diagnosis by image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy when feasible. Non-culture methods could be useful to support the diagnosis, but they have not been validated to be performed in cerebral spinal fluid. Treatment of these infections is challenging given the variable susceptibility profile of these pathogens and the penetration of antifungal agents into the brain.
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