Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
New Concepts in Diagnostics for Invasive Mycoses: Non-Culture-Based Methodologies
Previous Article in Journal
Proteomic Analysis of the Responses of Candida albicans during Infection of Galleria mellonella Larvae
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Moldy Application of MALDI: MALDI-ToF Mass Spectrometry for Fungal Identification
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Sporotrichosis In Immunocompromised Hosts

1
Department of Public Health, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80060-000, Brazil
2
Emilio Ribas Institute of Infectious Diseases, São Paulo 05411-000, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, and Tropical Medicine Institute, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5010008
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts)
  |  
PDF [1408 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is a global implantation or subcutaneous mycosis caused by several members of the genus Sporothrix, a thermo-dimorphic fungus. This disease may also depict an endemic profile, especially in tropical to subtropical zones around the world. Interestingly, sporotrichosis is an anthropozoonotic disease that may be transmitted to humans by plants or by animals, especially cats. It may be associated with rather isolated or clustered cases but also with outbreaks in different periods and geographic regions. Usually, sporotrichosis affects immunocompetent hosts, presenting a chronic to subacute evolution course. Less frequently, sporotrichosis may be acquired by inhalation, leading to disseminated clinical forms. Both modes of infection may occur in immunocompromised patients, especially associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but also diabetes mellitus, chronic alcoholism, steroids, anti-TNF treatment, hematologic cancer and transplanted patients. Similar to other endemic mycoses caused by dimorphic fungi, sporotrichosis in immunocompromised hosts may be associated with rather more severe clinical courses, larger fungal burden and longer periods of systemic antifungal therapy. A prolonged outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis is in progress in Brazil and potentially crossing the border to neighboring countries. This huge outbreak involves thousands of human and cats, including immunocompromised subjects affected by HIV and FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus), respectively. We reviewed the main epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of sporotrichosis in immunocompromised hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: AIDS; IRIS; cat-transmitted sporotrichosis; immunocompromised hosts; mycoses of implantation; sporotrichosis; Sporothrix brasiliensis; Sporothrix schenckii; subcutaneous mycoses AIDS; IRIS; cat-transmitted sporotrichosis; immunocompromised hosts; mycoses of implantation; sporotrichosis; Sporothrix brasiliensis; Sporothrix schenckii; subcutaneous mycoses
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Queiroz-Telles, F.; Buccheri, R.; Benard, G. Sporotrichosis In Immunocompromised Hosts. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 8.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top