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J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 113;

The Use of Galleria mellonella Larvae to Identify Novel Antimicrobial Agents against Fungal Species of Medical Interest

Medical Mycology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare W23F2H6, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Models for the Study of Fungal Host-Pathogen Interactions)
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The immune system of insects and the innate immune response of mammals share many similarities and, as a result, insects may be used to assess the virulence of fungal pathogens and give results similar to those from mammals. Larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella are widely used in this capacity and also for assessing the toxicity and in vivo efficacy of antifungal drugs. G. mellonella larvae are easy to use, inexpensive to purchase and house, and have none of the legal/ethical restrictions that are associated with use of mammals. Larvae may be inoculated by intra-hemocoel injection or by force-feeding. Larvae can be used to assess the in vivo toxicity of antifungal drugs using a variety of cellular, proteomic, and molecular techniques. Larvae have also been used to identify the optimum combinations of antifungal drugs for use in the treatment of recalcitrant fungal infections in mammals. The introduction of foreign material into the hemocoel of larvae can induce an immune priming effect which may operate independently with the activity of the antifungal drug. Procedures to identify this effect and limit its action are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galleria; model organism; antifungal; in vivo testing; immunomodulatory Galleria; model organism; antifungal; in vivo testing; immunomodulatory

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Kavanagh, K.; Sheehan, G. The Use of Galleria mellonella Larvae to Identify Novel Antimicrobial Agents against Fungal Species of Medical Interest. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 113.

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