Species of Scedosporium
are considered emerging opportunistic pathogens, causing invasive fungal diseases in humans that are known as scedosporiosis and fusariosis, respectively. These mold infections typically affect patients with immune impairment; however, cases have been reported in otherwise healthy individuals. Clinical manifestations vary considerably, ranging from isolated superficial infection to deep-seated invasive infection—affecting multiple organs—which is often lethal. While there have been a number of advances in the detection of these infections, including the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), diagnosis is often delayed, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the optimal therapy is controversial, there have also been notable advances in the treatment of these diseases, which often depend on a combination of antifungal therapy, reversal of immunosuppression, and in some cases, surgical resection. In this paper, we review these advances and examine how the management of scedosporiosis and fusariosis may change in the near future.
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