Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?
Previous Article in Journal
Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
Previous Article in Special Issue
Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 10;

The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System

Department of Biomedical Sciences, NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, USA
Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059-1027, USA
Public Health Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07103-9998, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1341 KB, uploaded 24 February 2017]   |  


Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell or inside of macrophages. Upon traversing the blood brain barrier, C. neoformans has the capacity to form biofilm-like structures known as cryptococcomas. Hence, we will discuss the C. neoformans elements contributing to biofilm formation including the fungus’ ability to survive in the acidic environment of a macrophage phagosome and inside of the CNS. The purpose of this mini-review is to instill fresh interest in understanding the importance of biofilms on fungal pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilms; CNS; Cryptococcus neoformans; cryptococcomas; macrophages biofilms; CNS; Cryptococcus neoformans; cryptococcomas; macrophages

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Aslanyan, L.; Sanchez, D.A.; Valdebenito, S.; Eugenin, E.A.; Ramos, R.L.; Martinez, L.R. The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 10.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top