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Article

Left Cardiac Remodelling Assessed by Echocardiography Is Associated with Rho-Kinase Activation in Long-Distance Runners

1
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Sergio Livingstone #1007, Santiago 8380492, Chile
2
Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Department of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna #4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile
3
Physiology Section, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal #643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Center of New Drugs for Hypertension (CENDHY), Universidad de Chile & Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Santos Dumont #964, Santiago 8380494, Chile
5
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences & Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Av. Sergio Livingstone #1007, Santiago 8380492, Chile
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Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Av. Harry Hines Blvd #5323, Dallas, TX 75390-8573, USA
7
Thorax Institute, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, Av. Carrer del Rosselló #149, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(10), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8100118
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 19 September 2021 / Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echocardiography in Cardiovascular Disease)
This single-blind and cross-sectional study evaluated the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) as a biomarker of the cardiovascular remodelling process assessed by echocardiography in competitive long-distance runners (LDRs) during the training period before a marathon race. Thirty-six healthy male LDRs (37.0 ± 5.3 years; 174.0 ± 7.0 height; BMI: 23.8 ± 2.8; V˙ O2-peak: 56.5 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1) were separated into two groups according to previous training level: high-training (HT, n = 16) ≥ 100 km·week−1 and low-training (LT, n = 20) ≥ 70 and < 100 km·week−1. Also, twenty-one healthy nonactive subjects were included as a control group (CTR). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed and ROCK activity levels in circulating leukocytes were measured at rest (48 h without exercising) the week before the race. The HT group showed a higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) than other groups (p < 0.05, for both); also, higher levels of ROCK activity were found in LDRs (HT = 6.17 ± 1.41 vs. CTR = 1.64 ± 0.66 (p < 0.01); vs. LT = 2.74 ± 0.84; (p < 0.05)). In LDRs a direct correlation between ROCK activity levels and LVMi (r = 0.83; p < 0.001), and LAVi (r = 0.70; p < 0.001) were found. In conclusion, in male competitive long-distance runners, the load of exercise implicated in marathon training is associated with ROCK activity levels and the left cardiac remodelling process assessed by echocardiography. View Full-Text
Keywords: athlete’s heart; cardiac biomarkers; echocardiography; exercise; functional cardiac capacity athlete’s heart; cardiac biomarkers; echocardiography; exercise; functional cardiac capacity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Contreras-Briceño, F.; Vega, J.; Mandiola, J.; Ocaranza, M.P.; Herrera, S.; Salinas, M.; Fernández, R.; Jalil, J.E.; Lavandero, S.; Chiong, M.; Godoy, P.; Castro, P.F.; Sitges, M.; Gabrielli, L. Left Cardiac Remodelling Assessed by Echocardiography Is Associated with Rho-Kinase Activation in Long-Distance Runners. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8100118

AMA Style

Contreras-Briceño F, Vega J, Mandiola J, Ocaranza MP, Herrera S, Salinas M, Fernández R, Jalil JE, Lavandero S, Chiong M, Godoy P, Castro PF, Sitges M, Gabrielli L. Left Cardiac Remodelling Assessed by Echocardiography Is Associated with Rho-Kinase Activation in Long-Distance Runners. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2021; 8(10):118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8100118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Contreras-Briceño, Felipe, Julián Vega, Jorge Mandiola, María P. Ocaranza, Sebastián Herrera, Manuel Salinas, Rodrigo Fernández, Jorge E. Jalil, Sergio Lavandero, Mario Chiong, Paz Godoy, Pablo F. Castro, Marta Sitges, and Luigi Gabrielli. 2021. "Left Cardiac Remodelling Assessed by Echocardiography Is Associated with Rho-Kinase Activation in Long-Distance Runners" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 8, no. 10: 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8100118

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