Plaque development and rupture are hallmarks of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Despite current therapeutic developments, there is an unmet necessity in the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease. It remains a challenge to determine at an early stage if atherosclerotic plaque will become unstable and vulnerable. The arrival of molecular imaging is receiving more attention, considering it allows for a better understanding of the biology of human plaque and vulnerabilities. Various plaque therapies with common goals have been tested in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. In this work, the process of plaque instability, along with current technologies for sensing and predicting high-risk plaques, is debated. Updates on potential novel therapeutic approaches are also summarized.
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