Introduction: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a main biomarker of oxidative stress, a common characteristic in end stage renal disease. We examined the relationship between ox-LDL serum concentrations and cardiovascular disease in permanent hemodiafiltration therapy patients. Methods: Ox-LDL values were measured by ELISA and were corrected for LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in 96 participants and in 45 healthy control subjects. We performed chi-square tests and adjusted models for the role of ox-LDL on cardiovascular morbidity including coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic, diastolic dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease. Results: ox-LDL/LDL-C values were significantly higher in patients than in control group (p
= 0.02), due to increased ox-LDL serum levels rather than to low LDL-C. The unadjusted relationship between high ox-LDL/LDL-C and low ejection fraction was found significant (x2
= 9.04, p
= 0.003), although the association with the other cardiovascular manifestations was found non-significant. In the adjusted model for the prediction of systolic cardiac dysfunction, high ox-LDL/LDL-C, old age and non-administration of vitamin D supplementation during dialysis session were found to be significant predictors after adjustment to the confounder. Moreover, the association between systolic cardiac dysfunction and non-administration of vitamin D derivatives during dialysis sessions was found significant (x2
= 6.9, p
= 0.008). Conclusions: This study showed a significant association between high ox-LDL and systolic cardiac dysfunction in permanent hemodiafiltration therapy patients. This relationship seems to be influenced by aging and pharmaceutical therapy during dialysis sessions, including vitamin D derivatives.
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