Next Article in Journal
Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Serum Concentrations and Cardiovascular Morbidity in End Stage of Renal Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Examples of Weak, If Not Absent, Form-Function Relations in the Vertebrate Heart
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
What Is the Heart? Anatomy, Function, Pathophysiology, and Misconceptions
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Resolving the True Ventricular Mural Architecture

Comparative Medicine Lab, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, DK-8200 Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz, Spain
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 3BZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(2), 34;
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
The precise nature of packing together of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls has still to be determined. The spiraling nature of the chains of interconnected cardiomyocytes has long been recognized. As long ago as the end of the nineteenth century, Pettigrew had emphasized that the ventricular cone was not arranged on the basis of skeletal muscle. Despite this guidance, subsequent anatomists described entities such as “bulbo-spiral muscles”, with this notion of subunits culminating in the suggestion that the ventricular cone could be unwrapped so as to produce a “ventricular myocardial band”. Others, in contrast, had suggested that the ventricular walls were arranged on the basis of “sheets”, or more recently “sheetlets”, with investigators seeking to establishing the angulation of these entities using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. Our own investigations, in contrast, have shown that the cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the supporting fibrous matrix so as to produce a three-dimensional myocardial mesh. In this review, we summarize the previous accounts, and provide the anatomical evidence we have thus far accumulated to support the model of the myocardial mesh. We show how these anatomic findings underscore the concept of the myocardial mesh functioning in antagonistic fashion. They lend evidence to support the notion that the ventricular myocardium works as a muscular hydrostat. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiomyocytes; ventricular walls; fibrous matrix; cardiac antagonism cardiomyocytes; ventricular walls; fibrous matrix; cardiac antagonism
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Stephenson, R.S.; Agger, P.; Omann, C.; Sanchez-Quintana, D.; Jarvis, J.C.; Anderson, R.H. Resolving the True Ventricular Mural Architecture. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop