Next Article in Journal
Isolation and Characterization of Feline Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Outcome in Cats with Acute Onset of Severe Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury Following Physical Rehabilitation
Article

Diastolic and Systolic Longitudinal Myocardial Velocities of Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging

Clinic for Small Mammals, Reptiles and Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 9, D-30559 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kristine Burgess
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020023
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 31 January 2021
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a noninvasive sonographic method of acquiring and quantifying myocardial velocities. This technique is used in human and small animal medicine to diagnose cardiac diseases. Using this technique, we evaluated the longitudinal myocardial peak velocities of the interventricular septum, and the left and right ventricular free walls in the systole and diastole in 40 racing pigeons. The TDI examinations confirmed the movement of the heart base toward the apex in the systole and away from the apex in the diastole. Inhomogeneous distribution of the myocardial velocities with a statistically significant velocity gradient from the basal to the apical myocardial segments was found. The left and right free walls have significantly higher myocardial velocities than the myocardium of the septum. The myocardial velocities during active ventricular filling were significantly higher in the right ventricular free wall than in the left one. The validation of the method resulted in coefficients of variation between 3% and 33% for the systolic and 3% and 75% for the diastolic individual myocardial velocities. Weekly repeated measurements resulted in variation coefficients between 3% and 45% for systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: TDI; tissue velocity imaging (TVI); Doppler sonography; heart; diastole; systole; birds TDI; tissue velocity imaging (TVI); Doppler sonography; heart; diastole; systole; birds
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Legler, M.; Koy, L.; Kummerfeld, N.; Fehr, M. Diastolic and Systolic Longitudinal Myocardial Velocities of Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging. Vet. Sci. 2021, 8, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020023

AMA Style

Legler M, Koy L, Kummerfeld N, Fehr M. Diastolic and Systolic Longitudinal Myocardial Velocities of Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging. Veterinary Sciences. 2021; 8(2):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Legler, Marko, Lajos Koy, Norbert Kummerfeld, and Michael Fehr. 2021. "Diastolic and Systolic Longitudinal Myocardial Velocities of Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging" Veterinary Sciences 8, no. 2: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020023

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop