An eight-year-old, neutered, female, long-haired cat was presented with a three-week history of progressive lethargy, unlocalized pain in the cervical and lumbar spine, and unwillingness to move. An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain revealed poorly circumscribed regions of non-contrast-enhancing heterogeneous T2 hyperintensity within the ventral forebrain and midbrain. A mass effect and evidence of increased intracranial pressure, including transtentorial herniation of the midbrain and herniation of the cerebellar vermis through the foramen magnum, were also observed. Due to progressive clinical decline and MRI results, the cat was humanely euthanized. Gross examination of the brain confirmed caudal transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation. The ventral aspect of the forebrain, midbrain, and brainstem were soft and had loss of detail, but lacked a grossly discernible mass. Histopathological examination found a poorly delineated neoplastic mass composed of hyperchromatic cells with indistinct cytoplasm, ovoid to elongate or curved nuclei, and indistinct nucleoli. The cells lacked immunoreactivity for Olig2, GFAP, Iba1, CD3, and Pax5. Based on the cellular morphology, immunolabeling characteristics, and anatomical location, a diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri was made. Although uncommon, gliomatosis cerebri should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with central nervous system disease.
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