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Progress in Adaptive Immunotherapy for Cancer in Companion Animals: Success on the Path to a Cure
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Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives

by Jong-Hyuk Kim 1,2,3,*, Ashley J. Graef 1,3, Erin B. Dickerson 1,2,3 and Jaime F. Modiano 1,2,3,4,5
1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
Animal Cancer Care and Research Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
3
Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
5
Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Duncan C. Ferguson and Margarethe Hoenig
Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(4), 388-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci2040388
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Pathogenesis of Cancers in Animals and Humans)
Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive and common cancer in dogs. While cutaneous masses are often treatable by tumor excision, visceral tumors are almost always incurable. Treatment advances for this disease have been limited due to a poor understanding of the overall tumor biology. Based upon its histological appearance, HSA has been presumed to originate from transformed endothelial cells; however, accumulating data now suggest a pluripotent bone marrow progenitor as the cell of origin for this disease. More recently, the identification of a novel subclassification of HSAs has provided a foundation to further our understanding of the cellular characteristics of HSA tumor cells, along with those of the cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. These discoveries hold promise for the development of new approaches to improve treatments for canine HSA, as well as to establish the utility of this disease as a spontaneous model to understand the pathogenesis and develop new treatments for vascular tumors of humans. In this review, we will provide a brief historical perspective and pathobiology of canine HSA, along with a focus on the recent advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of these tumors. In addition, future directions that should continue to improve our understanding of HSA pathogenesis will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal model; dog; hemangiosarcoma; tumor microenvironment animal model; dog; hemangiosarcoma; tumor microenvironment
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Kim, J.-H.; Graef, A.J.; Dickerson, E.B.; Modiano, J.F. Pathobiology of Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Research Advances and Future Perspectives. Vet. Sci. 2015, 2, 388-405.

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