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Open AccessArticle

On Linear and Circular Approach to GPS Data Processing: Analyses of the Horizontal Positioning Deviations Based on the Adriatic Region IGS Observables

Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Rijeka, Studentska ulica 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Academic Editor: Joaquín Torres-Sospedra
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Spatial Data Science and Digital Earth)
Global and regional positional accuracy assessment is of the highest importance for any satellite navigation system, including the Global Positioning System (GPS). Although positioning error can be expressed as a vector quantity with direction and magnitude, most of the research focuses on error magnitude only. The positional accuracy can be evaluated in terms of navigational quadrants as further refinement of error distribution, as it was shown here. This research was conducted in the wider area of the Northern Adriatic Region, employing the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS) data and products. Similarities of positional accuracy and deviations distributions for Single Point Positioning (SPP) were addressed in terms of magnitudes. Data were analyzed during the 11-day period. Linear and circular statistical methods were used to quantify regional positional accuracy and error behavior. This was conducted in terms of both scalar and vector values, with assessment of the underlying probability distributions. Navigational quadrantal positioning error subset analysis was carried out. Similarity in the positional accuracy and positioning deviations behavior, with uneven positional distribution between quadrants, indicated the directionality of the total positioning error. The underlying distributions for latitude and longitude deviations followed approximately normal distributions, while the radius was approximated by the Rayleigh distribution. The Weibull and gamma distributions were considered, as well. Possible causes of the analyzed positioning deviations were not investigated, but the ultimate positioning products were obtained as in standard, single-frequency positioning scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: global positioning system; Adriatic region; total positioning error budget; horizontal positioning deviations; navigational quadrants; directionality; isotropy; circular statistics global positioning system; Adriatic region; total positioning error budget; horizontal positioning deviations; navigational quadrants; directionality; isotropy; circular statistics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šakan, D.; Kos, S.; Ban, B.D.; Brčić, D. On Linear and Circular Approach to GPS Data Processing: Analyses of the Horizontal Positioning Deviations Based on the Adriatic Region IGS Observables. Data 2021, 6, 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/data6020009

AMA Style

Šakan D, Kos S, Ban BD, Brčić D. On Linear and Circular Approach to GPS Data Processing: Analyses of the Horizontal Positioning Deviations Based on the Adriatic Region IGS Observables. Data. 2021; 6(2):9. https://doi.org/10.3390/data6020009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šakan, Davor; Kos, Serdjo; Ban, Biserka D.; Brčić, David. 2021. "On Linear and Circular Approach to GPS Data Processing: Analyses of the Horizontal Positioning Deviations Based on the Adriatic Region IGS Observables" Data 6, no. 2: 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/data6020009

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