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Sea Ice Climate Normals for Seasonal Ice Monitoring of Arctic and Sub-Regions

Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites—North Carolina (CICS-NC) at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), North Carolina State University, Asheville, NC 28801, USA
NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), Asheville, NC 28801, USA
National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading RG2 9AX, UK
Riverside Technology, Inc., Asheville, NC 28801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Data 2019, 4(3), 122;
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Data and Robust & Reliable GIScience)
The climate normal, that is, the latest three full-decade average, of Arctic sea ice parameters is useful for baselining the sea ice state. A baseline ice state on both regional and local scales is important for monitoring how the current regional and local states depart from their normal to understand the vulnerability of marine and sea ice-based ecosystems to the changing climate conditions. Combined with up-to-date observations and reliable projections, normals are essential to business strategic planning, climate adaptation and risk mitigation. In this paper, monthly and annual climate normals of sea ice parameters (concentration, area, and extent) of the whole Arctic Ocean and 15 regional divisions are derived for the period of 1981–2010 using monthly satellite sea ice concentration estimates from a climate data record (CDR) produced by NOAA and the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Basic descriptions and characteristics of the normals are provided. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis has been utilized to describe spatial modes of sea ice concentration variability and how the corresponding principal components change over time. To provide users with basic information on data product accuracy and uncertainty, the climate normal values of Arctic sea ice extents (SIE) are compared with that of other products, including a product from NSIDC and two products from the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). The SIE differences between different products are in the range of 2.3–4.5% of the CDR SIE mean. Additionally, data uncertainty estimates are represented by using the range (the difference between the maximum and minimum), standard deviation, 10th and 90th percentiles, and the first, second, and third quartile distribution of all monthly values, a distinct feature of these sea ice normal products. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate normal; Arctic; sea ice; decadal trend; variability; climate data record; EOF; NSIDC; Copernicus; NOAA climate normal; Arctic; sea ice; decadal trend; variability; climate data record; EOF; NSIDC; Copernicus; NOAA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, G.; Arguez, A.; Meier, W.N.; Vamborg, F.; Crouch, J.; Jones, P. Sea Ice Climate Normals for Seasonal Ice Monitoring of Arctic and Sub-Regions. Data 2019, 4, 122.

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