Next Article in Journal
Growth Analysis and Nutrient Solution Management of a Soil-Less Tomato Crop in a Mediterranean Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Resazurin Assay Data for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Supporting a Model of the Growth Accelerated by a Stochastic Non-Homogeneity
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessData Descriptor

The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Process Gases within the Biowaste Compost

1
Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37a Chełmońskiego Str., 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
2
Best-Eko Sp. z o.o., 1 Gwarków Str., 44-240 Żory, Poland
3
Iowa State University, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, IA 50011-3270, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
  |  
PDF [2581 KB, uploaded 29 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Composting is generally accepted as the sustainable recycling of biowaste into a useful and beneficial product for soil. However, composting processes can produce gases that are considered air pollutants. In this dataset, we summarized the spatial and temporal distribution of process gases (including rarely reported carbon monoxide, CO) generated inside full-scale composting piles. In total 1375 cross-sections were made and presented in 230 figures. The research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of gas evolution during the composting of biowaste depending on the pile turning regime (no turning, turning once a week, and turning twice a week) and pile location (outdoors, and indoors in a composting hall). The analyzed biowaste (a mixture of tree leaves and branches, grass clippings, and sewage sludge) were composted in six piles with passive aeration including additional turning at a municipal composting plant. The chemical composition and temperature of process gases within each pile were analyzed weekly for ~49–56 days. The variations in the degree of pile aeration (O2 content), temperature, and the spatial distribution of CO, CO2 and NO concentration during the subsequent measurement cycles were summarized and visualized. The lowest O2 concentrations were associated with the central (core) part of the pile. Similarly, an increase in CO content in the pile core sections was found, which may indicate that CO is oxidized in the upper layer of composting piles. Higher CO and CO2 concentrations and temperature were also observed in the summer season, especially on the south side of piles located outdoors. The most varied results were for the NO concentrations that occurred in all conditions. The dataset was used by the composting plant operator for more sustainable management. Specifically, the dataset allowed us to make recommendations to minimize the environmental impact of composting operations and to lower the risk of worker exposure to CO. The new procedure is as follows: turning of biowaste twice a week for the first two weeks, followed by turning once a week for the next two weeks. Turning is not necessary after four weeks of the process. The recommended surface-to-volume ratio of a compost pile should not exceed 2.5. Compost piles should be constructed with a surface-to-volume ratio of less than 2 in autumn and early spring when low ambient temperatures are common. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; agricultural residues; organic waste; sewage sludge; municipal waste; waste management; composting; aeration; emissions; carbon monoxide; greenhouse gases; carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle biomass; agricultural residues; organic waste; sewage sludge; municipal waste; waste management; composting; aeration; emissions; carbon monoxide; greenhouse gases; carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stegenta, S.; Sobieraj, K.; Pilarski, G.; Koziel, J.A.; Białowiec, A. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Process Gases within the Biowaste Compost. Data 2019, 4, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Data EISSN 2306-5729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top