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Article

Classification of Pummelo (Citrus grandis) Extracts through UV-VIS-Based Chemical Fingerprint

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Sperimentali Università di Sassari, Viale San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Javier Saurina and Susana M. Cardoso
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020034
Received: 24 April 2022 / Revised: 30 May 2022 / Accepted: 11 June 2022 / Published: 13 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Statistics for Beverages)
Cold extraction methods with ethanol applied to the flavedo of Citrus fruits have been commonly applied for the preparation of several liquors. In order to obtain the extraction optimization and then the best ratio of functional ingredients in the extract, the flavedo of Citrus grandis Osbeck (pummelo) was subjected to a maceration with absolute ethanol at room temperature as well as at 40 °C. The kinetics of the extraction methods were monitored by UV–VIS spectroscopy, and a chemical fingerprint characteristic of each extract was determined by statistical multivariate analysis of the UV–VIS raw data. Additionally, the extracts were qualitatively characterized by NMR spectroscopy as well as by solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). NMR analysis confirmed the presence of the typical flavanones of Citrus such as naringin and naringenin, while the GC/MS analysis showed that the headspace of the liquor is characterized by two main compounds represented by β-myrcene and limonene. At the end, the temperature seems to not affect the time of extraction, which is complete after 25 h; however, UV–VIS-based multivariate analysis revealed that a different overall chemical composition is obtained depending on the temperature, probably due to the extraction of minor chemicals as well as due to different levels of the same compounds in the two extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus maxima; nuclear magnetic resonance; partial least square discriminant analysis; UV–VIS; multivariate analysis citrus maxima; nuclear magnetic resonance; partial least square discriminant analysis; UV–VIS; multivariate analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petretto, G.L.; Di Pietro, M.E.; Piroddi, M.; Pintore, G.; Mannu, A. Classification of Pummelo (Citrus grandis) Extracts through UV-VIS-Based Chemical Fingerprint. Beverages 2022, 8, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020034

AMA Style

Petretto GL, Di Pietro ME, Piroddi M, Pintore G, Mannu A. Classification of Pummelo (Citrus grandis) Extracts through UV-VIS-Based Chemical Fingerprint. Beverages. 2022; 8(2):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petretto, Giacomo Luigi, Maria Enrica Di Pietro, Marzia Piroddi, Giorgio Pintore, and Alberto Mannu. 2022. "Classification of Pummelo (Citrus grandis) Extracts through UV-VIS-Based Chemical Fingerprint" Beverages 8, no. 2: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020034

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