Next Article in Journal
Integrated Green Process for the Extraction of Red Grape Pomace Antioxidant Polyphenols Using Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin
Next Article in Special Issue
Brewing Efficacy of Non-Conventional Saccharomyces Non-cerevisiae Yeasts
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Dicarboxymethyl Cellulose on the Prevention of Protein Haze Formation on White Wine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Statistical Significant Differences between Aroma Profiles of Beer Brewed from Sorghum

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt

Faculty of Food Technology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad, Rumenački Put 20, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis F. Guido
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 58;
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 31 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section)
The kilning of malt occurs at different temperatures, depending on the desired color and aromas. Higher temperatures applied during kilning can be involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation in malt. PAHs are undesirable and designated as health hazards, it is important to quantify and qualify them in different malts. Since the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) gave strict recommendations about PAHs in different foods, but omitted malt as a potential hazardous raw material that can cause health damage to beer consumers, the aim of this investigation was to assess the presence of 16 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Anl), acenaphthene (Ane), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene (Flt), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP)) in different, commercially available malts (amber, black, pilsner, and cara-120). The results showed that PAHs are present in different malts, with some in high amounts (BaA in black malt was 737 µg/kg). Minimal levels of BaA were detected in the amber malt, 60.53 µg/kg. The PAH4 (BaP, BaA, BbF, and Chry) sums are identical to the BaA concentrations in all malts and greatly exceed the EFSA prescribed levels for PAH4 in processed cereal-based foods (1 µg/kg). View Full-Text
Keywords: malted barley; kiln; PAH16; PAH4; GC-MS malted barley; kiln; PAH16; PAH4; GC-MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mastanjević, K.; Krstanović, V.; Kovačević, D.; Kartalović, B.; Habschied, K. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt. Beverages 2021, 7, 58.

AMA Style

Mastanjević K, Krstanović V, Kovačević D, Kartalović B, Habschied K. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt. Beverages. 2021; 7(3):58.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mastanjević, Krešimir, Vinko Krstanović, Dragan Kovačević, Brankica Kartalović, and Kristina Habschied. 2021. "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Malt" Beverages 7, no. 3: 58.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop