An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain
2. Types of Sustainable Wines: Regulatory Issues, Certifications, and Labelling Systems
2.1. Organic Viticulture and Wine Production
2.2. Biodynamic Viticulture and Wine Production
2.3. Other Sustainability Standards and Labelling Systems
3. Statistics and Market Analysis
3.1. Organic Vineyards and Wines
3.2. Biodynamic Vineyards and Wines
3.3. Fairtrade Vineyards and Wines
4. Sustainability in Viticulture
4.1. Effects of Conventional and Sustainable Management on Soil
4.2. Environmental Impacts: A Comparison among Conventional and Sustainable Viticulture
4.3. Indicators of Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability
5. Sustainability in Wineries
5.1. The Main Impacts of Wineries
5.2. Winery Approach to Sustainability
6. Sustainability in the Wine Supply Chain
6.1. Contribution of the Wine Supply Chain to the Environmental Impact
6.2. Sustainability Promotion Tools
7. Environmental Impacts of the Wine Life Cycle from Viticulture to Distribution
8. Sustainability in the Waste Management
8.1. Amount and Characteristics of Wastes
8.2. Treatments of Wastes
9. Characteristics of Conventional and Sustainable Wines: Similar or Different?
10. Sustainable Wines: Consumer Perception, Preferences, and Willingness to Pay (WTP)
10.1. Consumer Approach to Sustainability
10.2. Consumer Attitude–Behaviour Gap and Willingness to Pay for Sustainable Wines
10.3. Consumer Perception of the Quality of Sustainable Wines
Conflicts of Interest
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|Key Dimensions||Measures and Actions|
|Environmental||Recovery of rainwater|
|Reduced production of wastewater and recycle wastewater|
|Recovery and recycle of wastes|
|Recovery of energy and heat|
|Use of renewable resources|
|Acquisition of green cars and delivery trucks|
|Use of low-impact innovative materials for packaging|
|Economic||Reduced consumption of water|
|Reduced consumption of energy|
|Sequestration and reuse of CO2 produced with fermentation|
|Recognisability on the market|
|Social||Protection of health and safety|
|Exploitation of local resources, workers, and growers|
|Stage of the Chain||Sustainable Practices||Effects on|
|Grape production||Promote the use of organic substances||√||√|
|Promote the use of a high level of automation||√||√|
|Implement actions to protect soil||√|
|Promote the more efficient micro-irrigation||√|
|Promote the use of precision agriculture||√|
|Preserve and promote biodiversity||√||√|
|Promote the production of compost starting from pruning residues||√|
|Reduce the use of fertilizing and agrochemicals||√||√||√|
|Wine production||Reduce the use of chemical substances||√|
|Promote the use of bio-materials to realise the cellar structures||√||√|
|Promote the recovery of waste to produce energy||√||√|
|Promote the use of the so-called clean energy||√|
|Construction of hypogeal or partially buried structures||√|
|Promote the recovery and use of rainwater||√|
|Bottling and Distribution||Use of recycled or alternative materials to produce bottles||√|
|Replace paper communication with digital communication||√||√|
|Use of recycled materials to produce labels||√|
|Use of recycled materials to produce packaging||√|
|Favouring 0 km production by bringing production sites closer to sales markets||√|
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Baiano, A. An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain. Beverages 2021, 7, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010015
Baiano A. An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain. Beverages. 2021; 7(1):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010015Chicago/Turabian Style
Baiano, Antonietta. 2021. "An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain" Beverages 7, no. 1: 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010015