Biomechanical investigations of surgical procedures and devices are usually developed by means of human or animal models. The exploitation of computational methods and tools can reduce, refine, and replace (3R) the animal experimentations for scientific purposes and for pre-clinical research. The computational model of a biological structure characterizes both its geometrical conformation and the mechanical behavior of its building tissues. Model development requires coupled experimental and computational activities. Medical images and anthropometric information provide the geometrical definition of the computational model. Histological investigations and mechanical tests on tissue samples allow for characterizing biological tissues’ mechanical response by means of constitutive models. The assessment of computational model reliability requires comparing model results and data from further experimentations. Computational methods allow for the in-silico analysis of surgical procedures and devices’ functionality considering many different influencing variables, the experimental investigation of which should be extremely expensive and time consuming. Furthermore, computational methods provide information that experimental methods barely supply, as the strain and the stress fields that regulate important mechano-biological phenomena. In this work, general notes about the development of biomechanical tools are proposed, together with specific applications to different fields, as dental implantology and bariatric surgery.
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