Next Article in Journal
Decellularized Human Umbilical Artery Used as Nerve Conduit
Previous Article in Journal
Breast Cancer Estimate Modeling via PDE Thermal Analysis Algorithms
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Standardized Collagen-Based Scaffold Improves Human Hepatocyte Shipment and Allows Metabolic Studies over 10 Days
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040099

Thermoplastic PCL-b-PEG-b-PCL and HDI Polyurethanes for Extrusion-Based 3D-Printing of Tough Hydrogels

1
Department of Biomaterials Science and Technology, Science and Technology Faculty, Technical Medical Centre, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Regenerative Medicine Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
4
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applying Polymeric Biomaterials in 3D Tissue Constructs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4016 KB, uploaded 14 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Novel tough hydrogel materials are required for 3D-printing applications. Here, a series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-b-PEG-b-PCL) triblock copolymers and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were developed with PEG contents varying between 30 and 70 mol%. These showed excellent mechanical properties not only when dry, but also when hydrated: TPUs prepared from PCL-b-PEG-b-PCL with PEG of Mn 6 kg/mol (PCL7-PEG6-PCL7) took up 122 wt.% upon hydration and had an E-modulus of 52 ± 10 MPa, a tensile strength of 17 ± 2 MPa, and a strain at break of 1553 ± 155% in the hydrated state. They had a fracture energy of 17976 ± 3011 N/mm2 and a high tearing energy of 72 kJ/m2. TPUs prepared using PEG with Mn of 10 kg/mol (PCL5-PEG10-PCL5) took up 534% water and were more flexible. When wet, they had an E-modulus of 7 ± 2 MPa, a tensile strength of 4 ± 1 MPa, and a strain at break of 147 ± 41%. These hydrogels had a fracture energy of 513 ± 267 N/mm2 and a tearing energy of 16 kJ/m2. The latter TPU was first extruded into filaments and then processed into designed porous hydrogel structures by 3D-printing. These hydrogels can be used in 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds with high fracture toughness. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermoplastic polyurethanes; tough hydrogels; 3D-printing; fused deposition modeling thermoplastic polyurethanes; tough hydrogels; 3D-printing; fused deposition modeling
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Güney, A.; Gardiner, C.; McCormack, A.; Malda, J.; Grijpma, D.W. Thermoplastic PCL-b-PEG-b-PCL and HDI Polyurethanes for Extrusion-Based 3D-Printing of Tough Hydrogels. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 99.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Bioengineering EISSN 2306-5354 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top