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Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5040104

The Emerging Role of Amino Acid PET in Neuro-Oncology

1
Division of Pediatrics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Diagnostic Radiology—Neuro Imaging, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology)
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Abstract

Imaging plays a critical role in the management of the highly complex and widely diverse central nervous system (CNS) malignancies in providing an accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, response assessment, prognosis, and surveillance. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the primary modality for CNS disease management due to its high contrast resolution, reasonable spatial resolution, and relatively low cost and risk. However, defining tumor response to radiation treatment and chemotherapy by contrast-enhanced MRI is often difficult due to various factors that can influence contrast agent distribution and perfusion, such as edema, necrosis, vascular alterations, and inflammation, leading to pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse assessments. Amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) is emerging as the method of resolving such equivocal lesion interpretations. Amino acid radiotracers can more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions based on their specific and active uptake by the highly metabolic cellular component of CNS tumors. These therapy-induced metabolic changes detected by amino acid PET facilitate early treatment response assessments. Integrating amino acid PET in the management of CNS malignancies to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; amino acid PET; central nervous system malignancy; pseudoprogression; pseudoresponse magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography; amino acid PET; central nervous system malignancy; pseudoprogression; pseudoresponse
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Najjar, A.M.; Johnson, J.M.; Schellingerhout, D. The Emerging Role of Amino Acid PET in Neuro-Oncology. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 104.

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