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Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030058

Assessment of Skeletal Tumor Load in Metastasized Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: A Review of Available Methods and an Overview on Future Perspectives

1
Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Uni-Klinikum Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine-DIMED, University Hospital of Padua, 35128 Padua, Italy
4
Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
5
National Council of Research-IBFM, 16132 Genoa, Italy
6
Department of Engineering, University of Genoa, Pole of Savona, 17100 Savona, Italy
7
National Council of Research-SPIN, 16152 Genoa, Italy
8
Department of Mathematics, University of Genoa, 16146 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract

Metastasized castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), is the most advanced form of prostate neoplasia, where massive spread to the skeletal tissue is frequent. Patients with this condition are benefiting from an increasing number of treatment options. However, assessing tumor response in patients with multiple localizations might be challenging. For this reason, many computational approaches have been developed in the last decades to quantify the skeletal tumor burden and treatment response. In this review, we analyzed the progressive development and diffusion of such approaches. A computerized literature search of the PubMed/Medline was conducted, including articles between January 2008 and March 2018. The search was expanded by manually reviewing the reference list of the chosen articles. Thirty-five studies were identified. The number of eligible studies greatly increased over time. Studies could be categorized in the following categories: automated analysis of 2D scans, SUV-based thresholding, hybrid CT- and SUV-based thresholding, and MRI-based thresholding. All methods are discussed in detail. Automated analysis of bone tumor burden in mCRPC is a growing field of research; when choosing the appropriate method of analysis, it is important to consider the possible advantages as well as the limitations thoroughly. View Full-Text
Keywords: mCRPC; computational analysis; bone metastases; bone scan; PET-CT mCRPC; computational analysis; bone metastases; bone scan; PET-CT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Fiz, F.; Dittman, H.; Campi, C.; Morbelli, S.; Marini, C.; Brignone, M.; Bauckneht, M.; Piva, R.; Massone, A.M.; Piana, M.; Sambuceti, G.; la Fougère, C. Assessment of Skeletal Tumor Load in Metastasized Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: A Review of Available Methods and an Overview on Future Perspectives. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 58.

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