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Finite Element Simulation and Additive Manufacturing of Stiffness-Matched NiTi Fixation Hardware for Mandibular Reconstruction Surgery
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Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 5;

Fixation Release and the Bone Bandaid: A New Bone Fixation Device Paradigm

Dynamic and Smart Systems Laboratory, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
Department of Plastic Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jacqueline J. Alblas
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
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The current gold standard of care for mandibular segmental defeat reconstruction is the use of Ti-6Al-4V immobilization hardware and fibular double barrel graft. This method is often successful immediately at restoring mandible function, however the highly stiff fixation hardware causes stress shielding of the grafted bone and stress concentration in the fixation device over time which can lead to fixation device failure and revision surgery. The purpose of reconstructive surgery could be to create normal stress trajectories in the mandible following engraftment. We investigate the use of a two stage mechanism which separates the immobilization/healing and regenerative phases of mandibular segmental defect treatment. The device includes the use of a very stiff, Ti-6Al-4V, releasable mechanism which assures bone healing. Therefore it could be released once the reconstructed boney tissue and any of its ligamentous attachments have completely healed. Underneath the released Ti-6Al-4V plate would be a pre-loaded nitinol (NiTi) wire-frame apparatus that facilitates the normal stress-strain trajectory through the engrafted bone after the graft is healed in place and the Ti-6Al-4V fixation device has been released. Due to the use of NiTi wires forming a netting that connects vascularized bone and possibly bone chips, bone grafts are also more likely to be incorporate rather than to resorb. We first evaluated a healthy adult mandible during normal mastication to obtain the normal stress-strain distribution. Then, we developed the finite element (FE) model of the mandibular reconstruction (in the M1-3 region) with the proposed fixation device during the healing (locked state) and post-healing (released state) periods. To recreate normal stress trajectory in the reconstructed mandible, we applied the Response Surface Methodology (RMS) to optimize the Bone Bandaid geometry (i.e., wire diameters and location). The results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism immobilizes the grafted bone in the locked state properly since the maximum resultant gap (21.54 micron) between the graft and host mandible surfaces are in the safe region (less than 300 micron). By considering the von Mises criteria for failure, FE analysis together with experimental studies (i.e., compressive and tensile testing on the inferior and superior fixation devices, respectively) confirm that the proposed fixation devices do not fail, showing safety factor of at least 10.3. Based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique, the optimal parameter values for the wires are achieved (0.65 mm and 1 mm for the superior and inferior wires, respectively) and the required level of preload on each wire are calculated (369.8 N and 229 N for the inferior and superior wires, respectively). The FE results for stress distribution on the reconstructed mandible during the released state closely match that of a healthy mandible. View Full-Text
Keywords: mandible; reconstructive surgery; finite element analysis; Bone Bandaid mandible; reconstructive surgery; finite element analysis; Bone Bandaid

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shayesteh Moghaddam, N.; Jahadakbar, A.; Amerinatanzi, A.; Skoracki, R.; Miller, M.; Dean, D.; Elahinia, M. Fixation Release and the Bone Bandaid: A New Bone Fixation Device Paradigm. Bioengineering 2017, 4, 5.

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