Next Article in Journal
Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains
Previous Article in Journal
Flood Risk Analysis in Lower Part of Markham River Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Approach (MCDA)
Open AccessArticle

Groundwater Evaporation Ponds: A Viable Option for the Management of Shallow Saline Waterlogged Areas

CSIR—National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR-NGRI), Hyderabad 500007, India
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo 2075, Sri Lanka
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi 110012, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Brocca
Hydrology 2016, 3(3), 30;
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
The province of Punjab is the main food basket of India. In recent years, many regions of Punjab are facing acute waterlogging problems and increased secondary salinity, which have negative impacts on food security of the nation. In particular, these problems are more pronounced in the Muktsar district of Punjab. The observed groundwater levels trend between 2005 and 2011 implies that groundwater levels are coming towards the land surface at the rate of 0.5 m/year in Lambi and Malout blocks. In this study, a groundwater flow model was constructed using MODFLOW to understand the groundwater table dynamics and to test the groundwater evaporation ponds to draw down the groundwater levels in the waterlogging areas of Muktsar district. The predicted flow model results indicate that groundwater levels could be depleted at the rate of 0.3 m/year between 2012 and 2018 after the construction of Groundwater Evaporation Ponds (GEP). In addition, the constructed ponds can be used for aquaculture that generates additional income. The proposed GEP method may be a promising tool and suitable for the reduction of waterlogging in any region if there is no proper surface drainage, and also for enhancement of agricultural production that improves the social and economic status of the farming community. View Full-Text
Keywords: MODFLOW; groundwater evaporation ponds; waterlogging; Muktsar; Punjab MODFLOW; groundwater evaporation ponds; waterlogging; Muktsar; Punjab
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Surinaidu, L.; Nandan, M.J.; Prathapar, S.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Rajmohan, N. Groundwater Evaporation Ponds: A Viable Option for the Management of Shallow Saline Waterlogged Areas. Hydrology 2016, 3, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop