This review covers the scope of multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD), laying the framework for studying hydrodynamics with and without chemical reactions in single and multiple phases regarded as continuum fluids. The molecular, coarse-grained particle, and meso-scale dynamics at the individual scale are excluded in this review. Scoping single-scale Eulerian CFD approaches, the necessity of multiscale CFD is highlighted. First, the Eulerian CFD theory, including the governing and turbulence equations, is described for single and multiple phases. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-based turbulence model such as the standard k
equation is briefly presented, which is commonly used for industrial flow conditions. Following the general CFD theories based on the first-principle laws, a multiscale CFD strategy interacting between micro- and macroscale domains is introduced. Next, the applications of single-scale CFD are presented for chemical and biological processes such as gas distributors, combustors, gas storage tanks, bioreactors, fuel cells, random- and structured-packing columns, gas-liquid bubble columns, and gas-solid and gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds. Several multiscale simulations coupled with Eulerian CFD are reported, focusing on the coupling strategy between two scales. Finally, challenges to multiscale CFD simulations are discussed. The need for experimental validation of CFD results is also presented to lay the groundwork for digital twins supported by CFD. This review culminates in conclusions and perspectives of multiscale CFD.
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