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Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofibers and Carbon-Covered Alumina as Support for W2C in Stearic Acid Hydrodeoxygenation

1
NUCAT/Programa de Engenharia Química da COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68502, Rio de Janeiro 21941-914, Brazil
2
Biobased Chemistry and Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ChemEngineering 2019, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering3010024
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract

Carbon materials play a crucial role in sorbents and heterogeneous catalysis and are widely used as catalyst support for several reactions. This paper reports on an investigation of tungsten carbide (W2C) catalyst on three types of carbon support, namely activated carbon (AC), carbon nanofibers (CNF) and carbon-covered alumina (CCA). We evaluated their activity and selectivity in stearic acid hydrodeoxygenation at 350 °C and 30 bar H2. Although all three W2C catalysts displayed similar intrinsic catalytic activities, the support did influence product distribution. At low conversions (<5%), W2C/AC yielded the highest amount of oxygenates relative to W2C/CNF and W2C/CCA. This suggests that the conversion of oxygenates into hydrocarbons is more difficult over W2C/AC than over W2C/CNF and W2C/CCA, which we relate to the lower acidity and smaller pore size of W2C/AC. The support also had an influence on the C18-unsaturated/C18-saturated ratio. At conversions below 30%, W2C/CNF presented the highest C18-unsaturated/C18-saturated ratio in product distribution, which we attribute to the higher mesopore volume of CNF. However, at higher conversions (>50%), W2C/CCA presented the highest C18-unsaturated/C18-saturated ratio in product distribution, which appears to be linked to W2C/CCA having the highest ratio of acid/metallic sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon materials; catalyst support; tungsten carbide; hydrodeoxygenation reaction carbon materials; catalyst support; tungsten carbide; hydrodeoxygenation reaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Souza Macedo, L.; Teixeira da Silva, V.; Bitter, J.H. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofibers and Carbon-Covered Alumina as Support for W2C in Stearic Acid Hydrodeoxygenation. ChemEngineering 2019, 3, 24.

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