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Effect of Sulforaphane and 5-Aza-2’-Deoxycytidine on Melanoma Cell Growth

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences Program & Department of Epidemiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Arkansas Children’s Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2019, 6(3), 71;
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as New Cancer Treatments)
PDF [2033 KB, uploaded 27 June 2019]


Background: UV exposure-induced oxidative stress is implicated as a driving mechanism for melanoma. Increased oxidative stress results in DNA damage and epigenetic dysregulation. Accordingly, we explored whether a low dose of the antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN) in combination with the epigenetic drug 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (DAC) could slow melanoma cell growth. SFN is a natural bioactivated product of the cruciferous family, while DAC is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Methods: Melanoma cell growth characteristics, gene transcription profiles, and histone epigenetic modifications were measured after single and combination treatments with SFN and DAC. Results: We detected melanoma cell growth inhibition and specific changes in gene expression profiles upon combinational treatments with SFN and DAC, while no significant alterations in histone epigenetic modifications were observed. Dysregulated gene transcription of a key immunoregulator cytokine—C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL-5)—was validated. Conclusions: These results indicate a potential combinatorial effect of a dietary antioxidant and an FDA-approved epigenetic drug in controlling melanoma cell growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulforaphane; epigenetic; 5-aza-2’-deoxycytine; melanoma sulforaphane; epigenetic; 5-aza-2’-deoxycytine; melanoma

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Chiang, T.-C.; Koss, B.; Su, L.J.; Washam, C.L.; Byrum, S.D.; Storey, A.; Tackett, A.J. Effect of Sulforaphane and 5-Aza-2’-Deoxycytidine on Melanoma Cell Growth. Medicines 2019, 6, 71.

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