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Open AccessArticle

The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Rocha and James D. Adams
Medicines 2017, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030047
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
Background: Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2–27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9–26.9%), and camphor (12.8–21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the “typical”, α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: sage oil; chemical composition; cluster analysis sage oil; chemical composition; cluster analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Craft, J.D.; Satyal, P.; Setzer, W.N. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents. Medicines 2017, 4, 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030047

AMA Style

Craft JD, Satyal P, Setzer WN. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents. Medicines. 2017; 4(3):47. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Craft, Jonathan D.; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N. 2017. "The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents" Medicines 4, no. 3: 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030047

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