Effect of Exposure of Plastic Infant Feeding Bottle Leached Water on Biochemical, Morphological and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Rats
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Animal Maintenance
- In Group 1 (control group), the rats were provided with food and RO-filtered tap water ad libitum.
- In Group 2 (BPA treated), BPA dissolved in olive oil (20 µg/kg bodyweight/day) was fed to the rats, orally, by gavage feeding.
- In Group 3 (plastic leached water treated), water leached from plastic infant bottles as mentioned under section “Drugs and Solutions” was provided to the rats. The rats consumed plastic leached water instead of RO-filtered tap water throughout the period of treatment. Each rat drank 30–35 mL of this leached water per day.
2.2. Drugs and Solutions
- The infant feeding bottles used in the present study were made of plastic. These bottles were purchased from a local shop. The information regarding the type of plastic used in these bottles was not mentioned.
- Initially, the plastic infant bottles were cleansed with detergent and washed under tap water.
- These bottles were soaked in hot water for sterilization.
- Thereafter, the bottles were allowed to dry.
- The dried bottles were filled with water, which was previously boiled to 100 °C in a separate glass container. The water was boiled to 100 °C, as in real practice, water/milk is initially boiled by people for sterilization and, thereafter, it was allowed to cool so that it can be administered to infants, where it attains a lukewarm temperature.
- These filled infant bottles were kept in a water bath with the temperature maintained at 40 °C for an hour, so that lukewarm temperature was maintained.
- This water was given to the rats of Group 3.
- The leached water thus prepared was subjected to HPLC analysis to determine the concentration of BPA.
2.3. HPLC Analysis
2.4. Histological Examination and Biochemical Parameter
2.5. Oxidative Stress Markers
2.6. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Biochemical Changes
3.2. Cytoarchitectural Changes
3.3. Oxidative Stress Tests
3.4. BPA Estimation in Plastic Leached Water by HPLC
Conflicts of Interest
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Pant, M.K.; Ahmad, A.H.; Naithani, M.; Pandey, H.S.; Pandey, M.; Pant, J. Effect of Exposure of Plastic Infant Feeding Bottle Leached Water on Biochemical, Morphological and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Rats. Toxics 2020, 8, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020034
Pant MK, Ahmad AH, Naithani M, Pandey HS, Pandey M, Pant J. Effect of Exposure of Plastic Infant Feeding Bottle Leached Water on Biochemical, Morphological and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Rats. Toxics. 2020; 8(2):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020034Chicago/Turabian Style
Pant, Mahendra K., Abul H. Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Hari S. Pandey, Monika Pandey, and Jayanti Pant. 2020. "Effect of Exposure of Plastic Infant Feeding Bottle Leached Water on Biochemical, Morphological and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Rats" Toxics 8, no. 2: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020034