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Open AccessArticle

Risk of Lead Exposure from Transport Stations to Human Health: A Case Study in the Highland Province of Vietnam

Department of Environmental Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
Centre of Water Management and Climate Change, Vietnam National University, HoChiMinh 700000, Vietnam
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Danang 550000, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2019, 7(3), 48;
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Risk Assessment and Risk Management)
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that negatively affects human health. Many studies have shown the relationship between lead exposure and various human activities, of which automobile service stations with gasoline emissions are considered the main cause. However, a limited number of studies have specifically considered lead exposure from automobile stations in Vietnam, as well as its impact on human activities and the surrounding natural resources. The objective of this study was to assess the possible risks of lead exposure to the surrounding agricultural and non-agricultural farms of a bus station located in the center of Dalat city, Lamdong province, Vietnam. To address this objective, 45 samples were collected from the soil, irrigated water resources, and vegetable crops of areas both close to and far away from the bus station. These samples were tested using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Our findings demonstrated higher lead concentration levels from all three types of samples collected from areas near the bus station. Of which, soil and water samples showed higher than normal exposure values of lead, but these were still under the allowed limits established by the Vietnam standard. Different from the soil and water, vegetable samples surrounding the bus station presented greater lead contamination than the permitted limit. High risk quotient (RQ) indexes were detected to point out that accumulative consumption of leaded vegetables over time could cause lead poisoning and harm human health. This study not only provides significant inferential evidence of the risk of lead exposure to agricultural activities and human health in Vietnam, but also delivers a real-life example for a real-world context. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; soil; crops; bus station; lead heavy metals; soil; crops; bus station; lead
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Le, Q.H.; Tran, D.D.; Chen, Y.-C.; Nguyen, H.L. Risk of Lead Exposure from Transport Stations to Human Health: A Case Study in the Highland Province of Vietnam. Toxics 2019, 7, 48.

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