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Propensity of Tagetes erecta L., a Medicinal Plant Commonly Used in Diabetes Management, to Accumulate Perfluoroalkyl Substances

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Bioresource Engineering Research Group (BioERG), Department of Biotechnology and Consumer Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 652, Cape Town 8000, Western Cape, South Africa
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Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
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Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville 7535, Western Cape, South Africa
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Johannesburg 2028, Gauteng, South Africa
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Department of Agriculture, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington Campus, Wellington 7655, Western Cape, South Africa
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Research Management Unit, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 652, Cape Town 8000, Western Cape, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2019, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7010018
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
It has been extensively demonstrated that plants accumulate organic substances emanating from various sources, including soil and water. This fact suggests the potentiality of contamination of certain vital bioresources, such as medicinal plants, by persistent contaminants, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). Hence, in this study, the propensity of Tagetes erecta L. (a commonly used medicinal plant) to accumulate PFOA, PFOS, and PFBS was determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS-8030). From the results, PFOA, PFOS, and PFBS were detected in all the plant samples and concentration levels were found to be 94.83 ng/g, 5.03 ng/g, and 1.44 ng/g, respectively, with bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranges of 1.30 to 2.57, 13.67 to 72.33, and 0.16 to 0.31, respectively. Little evidence exists on the bioaccumulative susceptibility of medicinal plants to these persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These results suggest that these medicinal plants (in particular, Tagetes erecta L., used for the management of diabetes) are also potential conduits of PFOA, PFOS, and PFBS into humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal plants; perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS); Tagetes erecta L. medicinal plants; perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS); Tagetes erecta L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mudumbi, J.B.N.; Daso, A.P.; Okonkwo, O.J.; Ntwampe, S.K.O.; Matsha, T.E.; Mekuto, L.; Itoba-Tombo, E.F.; Adetunji, A.T.; Sibali, L.L. Propensity of Tagetes erecta L., a Medicinal Plant Commonly Used in Diabetes Management, to Accumulate Perfluoroalkyl Substances. Toxics 2019, 7, 18.

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