Next Article in Journal
Monthly Variations in Perfluorinated Compound Concentrations in Groundwater
Previous Article in Journal
Diabetes and Exposure to Environmental Lead (Pb)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Intrauterine Exposure to Cadmium Reduces HIF-1 DNA-Binding Ability in Rat Fetal Kidneys
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxics 2018, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030055

The NOAEL Metformin Dose Is Ineffective against Metabolic Disruption Induced by Chronic Cadmium Exposure in Wistar Rats

1
Laboratory of Chemical-Clinical Investigations, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry Science, University Autonomous of Puebla, 14 South. CQ1, University City, Puebla C.P. 72560, Mexico
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry Science, University Autonomous of Puebla, 14 South. CQ1, University City, Puebla C.P. 72560, Mexico
3
Department of Analytic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry Science, University Autonomous of Puebla, 14 South. CQ1, University City, Puebla C.P. 72560, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cadmium Sources and Toxicity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1225 KB, uploaded 10 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Previous studies have proposed that cadmium (Cd) is a metabolic disruptor, which is associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. This metal is not considered by international agencies for the study of metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigate the effect of metformin on Cd-exposed Wistar rats at a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) dose (32.5 ppm) in drinking water. Metabolic complications in the rats exposed to Cd were dysglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, dyslipoproteinemia, and imbalance in triglyceride and glycogen storage in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney, and adipose tissue. Meanwhile, rats treated orally with a No-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of metformin (200 mg/kg/day) showed mild improvement on serum lipids, but not on glucose tolerance; in tissues, glycogen storage was improved, but lipid storage was ineffective. In conclusion, metformin as a first-line pharmacological therapy must take into consideration the origin and duration of metabolic disruption, because in this work the NOAEL dose of metformin (200 mg/kg/day) showed a limited efficiency in the metabolic disruption caused by chronic Cd exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: metformin; cadmium toxicity; metabolic disruptor; metabolic syndrome metformin; cadmium toxicity; metabolic disruptor; metabolic syndrome
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sarmiento-Ortega, V.E.; Brambila, E.; Flores-Hernández, J.Á.; Díaz, A.; Peña-Rosas, U.; Moroni-González, D.; Aburto-Luna, V.; Treviño, S. The NOAEL Metformin Dose Is Ineffective against Metabolic Disruption Induced by Chronic Cadmium Exposure in Wistar Rats. Toxics 2018, 6, 55.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxics EISSN 2305-6304 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top