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Hematological Abnormality, Oxidative Stress, and Genotoxicity Induction in the Greenhouse Pesticide Sprayers; Investigating the Role of NQO1 Gene Polymorphism
Open AccessArticle

Proposal for a Monitoring Concept for Veterinary Medicinal Products with PBT Properties, Using Parasiticides as a Case Study

ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, 65439 Flörsheim am Main, Germany
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Toxics 2018, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6010014
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
The aim of this work is to prepare a proposal for the post-authorization monitoring (PAM) of veterinary medicinal products (VMP), in particular parasiticides. Such a monitoring might especially be useful for parasiticides identified as Persistence Bioaccumulation Toxicity (PBT) substances, i.e., chemicals that are toxic (T), persist in the environment (P) and bioaccumulate (B) in food chains and, thus, pose a hazard to ecosystems. Based on a literature search, issues to be considered when performing such a PAM are discussed (e.g., residue analysis, compartments to be included, selection of organisms and the duration of monitoring studies). The outcome of this discussion is that—and despite that there are huge challenges in detail (e.g., in terms of analytical chemistry or taxonomy)—the technical performance of such a PAM is not the main problem, since most of the chemical and biological methods to be used are well-known (partly even standardized) or could be adapted. However, it is very difficult to define in detail where and when a monitoring should be performed. The main problem is to link exposure to effects of a certain parasiticide in a way that any impact can directly be related to the use of this parasiticide. Therefore, a “Targeted Environmental Monitoring” (TEM) is proposed, which is essentially a combination between a field study and a PAM. View Full-Text
Keywords: VMP; persistence; bioaccumulation; toxicity; dung organisms; post-authorization monitoring; field study VMP; persistence; bioaccumulation; toxicity; dung organisms; post-authorization monitoring; field study
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Römbke, J.; Duis, K. Proposal for a Monitoring Concept for Veterinary Medicinal Products with PBT Properties, Using Parasiticides as a Case Study. Toxics 2018, 6, 14.

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