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Article

Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients

1
Embrapa Cerrados, Rodovia BR 020, Km 18, Planaltina DF 73310-970, Brazil
2
Faculdade de Ciências da Educação e Saúde (FACES), Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB), Brasília DF 70790-075, Brazil
3
Faculdade UnB Planaltina, Campus de Planaltina Área Universitária 01, Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Planaltina DF 73345-010, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Bellinger
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
This study aimed to analyze the ecotoxicity of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and potassium-based compounds to organisms of two different trophic levels in order to compare the toxic effect between high-purity substances and these substances as components of fertilizers. Dilutions were made with the fertilizers’ potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, superphosphate, urea, and their equivalent reagents, to conduct assays to establish the acute lethal concentration for half of the population (LC50). Ten individuals of the benthic snail Biomphalaria glabrata and the fish Danio rerio were exposed to each concentration of tested compounds. As a result, the toxicity levels of potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, and urea were obtained for B. glabrata and D. rerio, with the fish being more susceptible to potassium chloride in the fertilizer and the snail to potassium nitrate and urea, in both commercial and reagent forms. Regarding superphosphate, no significant toxicity was found. This study concluded that among the tested substances, KNO3 and KCl were the most toxic substances and urea the least toxic. It was not possible to establish the most sensitive species since, for KCl, the fish were more susceptible to the fertilizer and the snail to the reagent, while for KNO3 the opposite was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioassays; agriculture; lethal concentration; environmental chemistry bioassays; agriculture; lethal concentration; environmental chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Simplício, N.D.C.S.; Muniz, D.H.d.F.; Rocha, F.R.M.; Martins, D.C.; Dias, Z.M.B.; Farias, B.P.d.C.; Oliveira-Filho, E.C. Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients. Toxics 2017, 5, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5010002

AMA Style

Simplício NDCS, Muniz DHdF, Rocha FRM, Martins DC, Dias ZMB, Farias BPdC, Oliveira-Filho EC. Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients. Toxics. 2017; 5(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Simplício, Nathan D.C.S., Daphne H.d.F. Muniz, Fernanda R.M. Rocha, Denis C. Martins, Zélia M.B. Dias, Bruno P.d.C. Farias, and Eduardo C. Oliveira-Filho 2017. "Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients" Toxics 5, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5010002

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