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Boron Compounds Exhibit Protective Effects against Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

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Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya University, 54050 Sakarya, Turkey
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Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Erzurum Technical University, 25050 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Biology, Kamil Özdağ Faculty of Science, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, 70200 Karaman, Turkey
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Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Medical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Uskudar University, 34664 Istanbul, Turkey
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
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Science for Life Laboratory, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
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Centre for Host-Microbiome Interactions, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Louis Tremblay and Jason Cannon
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080428
Received: 1 May 2022 / Revised: 18 July 2022 / Accepted: 26 July 2022 / Published: 28 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
Genetic, neuropathological and biochemical investigations have revealed meaningful relationships between aluminum (Al) exposure and neurotoxic and hematotoxic damage. Hence, intensive efforts are being made to minimize the harmful effects of Al. Moreover, boron compounds are used in a broad mix of industries, from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals to agriculture. They affect critical biological functions in cellular events and enzymatic reactions, as well as endocrinal and mineral metabolisms. There are limited dose-related data about boric acid (BA) and other boron compounds, including colemanite (Col), ulexite (UX) and borax (BX), which have commercial prominence. In this study, we evaluate boron compounds’ genetic, cytological, biochemical and pathological effects against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced hematotoxicity and neurotoxicity on different cell and animal model systems. First, we perform genotoxicity studies on in vivo rat bone marrow cells and peripheric human blood cultures. To analyze DNA and chromosome damage, we use single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay) and micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays. The nuclear division index (NDI) is used to monitor cytostasis. Second, we examine the biochemical parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS)) to determine oxidative changes in blood and brain. Next, we assess the histopathological alterations by using light and electron microscopes. Our results show that Al increases oxidative stress and genetic damage in blood and brain in vivo and in vitro studies. Al also led to severe histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the brain. However, the boron compounds alone did not cause adverse changes based on the above-studied parameters. Moreover, these compounds exhibit different levels of beneficial effects by removing the harmful impact of Al. The antioxidant, antigenotoxic and cytoprotective effects of boron compounds against Al-induced damage indicate that boron may have a high potential for use in medical purposes in humans. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that boron compounds (especially BA, BX and UX) can be administered to subjects to prevent neurodegenerative and hematological disorders at determined doses. View Full-Text
Keywords: boron compounds; aluminum chloride; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity; oxidative status; neurotoxicity; hematotoxicity; histopathology; brain; blood boron compounds; aluminum chloride; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity; oxidative status; neurotoxicity; hematotoxicity; histopathology; brain; blood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Turkez, H.; Yıldırım, S.; Sahin, E.; Arslan, M.E.; Emsen, B.; Tozlu, O.O.; Alak, G.; Ucar, A.; Tatar, A.; Hacimuftuoglu, A.; Keles, M.S.; Geyikoglu, F.; Atamanalp, M.; Saruhan, F.; Mardinoglu, A. Boron Compounds Exhibit Protective Effects against Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity: In Vitro and In Vivo Study. Toxics 2022, 10, 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080428

AMA Style

Turkez H, Yıldırım S, Sahin E, Arslan ME, Emsen B, Tozlu OO, Alak G, Ucar A, Tatar A, Hacimuftuoglu A, Keles MS, Geyikoglu F, Atamanalp M, Saruhan F, Mardinoglu A. Boron Compounds Exhibit Protective Effects against Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity: In Vitro and In Vivo Study. Toxics. 2022; 10(8):428. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080428

Chicago/Turabian Style

Turkez, Hasan, Serkan Yıldırım, Elvan Sahin, Mehmet Enes Arslan, Bugrahan Emsen, Ozlem Ozdemir Tozlu, Gonca Alak, Arzu Ucar, Abdulgani Tatar, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Mevlut Sait Keles, Fatime Geyikoglu, Muhammed Atamanalp, Fatih Saruhan, and Adil Mardinoglu. 2022. "Boron Compounds Exhibit Protective Effects against Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity: In Vitro and In Vivo Study" Toxics 10, no. 8: 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080428

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