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Article

Diclofenac Concentrations in Post-Mortem Specimens—Distribution, Case Reports, and Validated Method (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) for Its Determination

1
Department of Forensic Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, 50345 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Institute of Toxicology Research, 45 Kasztanowa Street, 55093 Borowa, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Octavio Pérez Luzardo
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080421
Received: 24 June 2022 / Revised: 18 July 2022 / Accepted: 25 July 2022 / Published: 26 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Forensic Toxicology)
The aim of the research was to establish a sensitive method for the quantification of diclofenac in postmortem samples. The developed method was applied in six cases: three fetuses in which the use of abortion pills by their mothers was suspected, one case of duodenal ulcer perforation, one case of traffic accident with fatal outcome, and one acute renal failure in which the distribution of diclofenac was examined. The analyses were performed using liquid–liquid extraction of postmortem samples and the quantification of diclofenac via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Gradient elution using a C18 column was applied. Electrospray ionization measurement in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode was used. Diclofenac-d4 was used as an internal standard. The validation parameters were as follows: lower limit of quantification: 0.5 ng/mL, linearity of calibration curve: 0.5–500 ng/mL, intra- and interday accuracies and precisions: not greater than 15%; recovery values: 72.0–102.2%, and matrix effect: 2.2–28.0%. The developed method enabled the determination of diclofenac in human postmortem biological fluids (blood, urine, vitreous humor, bile, and stomach content), tissues (placenta, kidney, liver, and heart), and in exhumated fetus bones, with high recovery, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: diclofenac; UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS; abortion; distribution; fetus diclofenac; UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS; abortion; distribution; fetus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szpot, P.; Wachełko, O.; Zawadzki, M. Diclofenac Concentrations in Post-Mortem Specimens—Distribution, Case Reports, and Validated Method (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) for Its Determination. Toxics 2022, 10, 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080421

AMA Style

Szpot P, Wachełko O, Zawadzki M. Diclofenac Concentrations in Post-Mortem Specimens—Distribution, Case Reports, and Validated Method (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) for Its Determination. Toxics. 2022; 10(8):421. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szpot, Paweł, Olga Wachełko, and Marcin Zawadzki. 2022. "Diclofenac Concentrations in Post-Mortem Specimens—Distribution, Case Reports, and Validated Method (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) for Its Determination" Toxics 10, no. 8: 421. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080421

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