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Exposure Routes and Health Risks Associated with Pesticide Application

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Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 11 Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
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School of Medicine, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
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Foreign Environmental Cooperation Center, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035, China
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China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing 100050, China
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School of Engineering and Built Environment, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
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Environmental Science Program, Division of Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, 2000 Jintong Road, Tangjiawan, Zhuhai 519087, China
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Department of Biological, Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra P.O. Box LG13, Ghana
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School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clara Coscollá Raga
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060335
Received: 26 April 2022 / Revised: 9 June 2022 / Accepted: 13 June 2022 / Published: 19 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Epidemiology)
Pesticides play an important role in agricultural development. However, pesticide application can result in both acute and chronic human toxicities, and the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and human health remain a serious problem. There is therefore a need to discuss the application methods for pesticides, the routes of pesticide exposure, and the health risks posed by pesticide application. The health problems related to pesticide application and exposure in developing countries are of particular concern. The purpose of this paper is to provide scientific information for policymakers in order to allow the development of proper pesticide application technics and methods to minimize pesticide exposure and the adverse health effects on both applicators and communities. Studies indicate that there are four main pesticide application methods, including hydraulic spraying, backpack spraying, basal trunk spraying, and aerial spraying. Pesticide application methods are mainly selected by considering the habits of target pests, the characteristics of target sites, and the properties of pesticides. Humans are directly exposed to pesticides in occupational, agricultural, and household activities and are indirectly exposed to pesticides via environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. Human exposure to pesticides occurs mainly through dermal, oral, and respiratory routes. People who are directly and/or indirectly exposed to pesticides may contract acute toxicity effects and chronic diseases. Although no segment of the general population is completely protected against exposure to pesticides and their potentially serious health effects, a disproportionate burden is shouldered by people in developing countries. Both deterministic and probabilistic human health risk assessments have their advantages and disadvantages and both types of methods should be comprehensively implemented in research on exposure and human health risk assessment. Equipment for appropriate pesticide application is important for application efficiency to minimize the loss of spray solution as well as reduce pesticide residuals in the environment and adverse human health effects due to over-spraying and residues. Policymakers should implement various useful measures, such as integrated pest management (IPM) laws that prohibit the use of pesticides with high risks and the development of a national implementation plan (NIP) to reduce the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: human health risk assessment; occupational health and safety; pesticide application methods; pesticide exposure human health risk assessment; occupational health and safety; pesticide application methods; pesticide exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tudi, M.; Li, H.; Li, H.; Wang, L.; Lyu, J.; Yang, L.; Tong, S.; Yu, Q.J.; Ruan, H.D.; Atabila, A.; Phung, D.T.; Sadler, R.; Connell, D. Exposure Routes and Health Risks Associated with Pesticide Application. Toxics 2022, 10, 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060335

AMA Style

Tudi M, Li H, Li H, Wang L, Lyu J, Yang L, Tong S, Yu QJ, Ruan HD, Atabila A, Phung DT, Sadler R, Connell D. Exposure Routes and Health Risks Associated with Pesticide Application. Toxics. 2022; 10(6):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tudi, Muyesaier, Hairong Li, Hongying Li, Li Wang, Jia Lyu, Linsheng Yang, Shuangmei Tong, Qiming Jimmy Yu, Huada Daniel Ruan, Albert Atabila, Dung Tri Phung, Ross Sadler, and Des Connell. 2022. "Exposure Routes and Health Risks Associated with Pesticide Application" Toxics 10, no. 6: 335. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060335

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