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Article

Developmental Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Effects of Exposure to Nanomolar Levels of 4-Nonylphenol, Triclosan, and Triclocarban in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

1
Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 28201, USA
3
Department of Environmental and Global Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
4
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robyn L. Tanguay
Toxics 2022, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10020053
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 18 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Triclosan, triclocarban and 4-nonylphenol are all chemicals of emerging concern found in a wide variety of consumer products that have exhibited a wide range of endocrine-disrupting effects and are present in increasing amounts in groundwater worldwide. Results of the present study indicate that exposure to these chemicals at critical developmental periods, whether long-term or short-term in duration, leads to significant mortality, morphologic, behavioral and transcriptomic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio). These effects range from total mortality with either long- or short-term exposure at 100 and 1000 nM of triclosan, to abnormalities in uninflated swim bladder seen with long-term exposure to triclocarban and short-term exposure to 4-nonylphenol, and cardiac edema seen with short-term 4-nonylphenol exposure. Additionally, a significant number of genes involved in neurological and cardiovascular development were differentially expressed after the exposures, as well as lipid metabolism genes and metabolic pathways after exposure to each chemical. Such changes in behavior, gene expression, and pathway abnormalities caused by these three known endocrine disruptors have the potential to impact not only the local ecosystem, but human health as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: triclosan; triclocarbon; detergents; 4-nonylphenol; Danio rerio; zebrafish; environmental toxicity; development; aquatic environment; ground water chemicals triclosan; triclocarbon; detergents; 4-nonylphenol; Danio rerio; zebrafish; environmental toxicity; development; aquatic environment; ground water chemicals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Phillips, J.; Haimbaugh, A.S.; Akemann, C.; Shields, J.N.; Wu, C.-C.; Meyer, D.N.; Baker, B.B.; Siddiqua, Z.; Pitts, D.K.; Baker, T.R. Developmental Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Effects of Exposure to Nanomolar Levels of 4-Nonylphenol, Triclosan, and Triclocarban in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxics 2022, 10, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10020053

AMA Style

Phillips J, Haimbaugh AS, Akemann C, Shields JN, Wu C-C, Meyer DN, Baker BB, Siddiqua Z, Pitts DK, Baker TR. Developmental Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Effects of Exposure to Nanomolar Levels of 4-Nonylphenol, Triclosan, and Triclocarban in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxics. 2022; 10(2):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10020053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Phillips, Jessica, Alex S. Haimbaugh, Camille Akemann, Jeremiah N. Shields, Chia-Chen Wu, Danielle N. Meyer, Bridget B. Baker, Zoha Siddiqua, David K. Pitts, and Tracie R. Baker. 2022. "Developmental Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Effects of Exposure to Nanomolar Levels of 4-Nonylphenol, Triclosan, and Triclocarban in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)" Toxics 10, no. 2: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10020053

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