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Article

Ancestral Wheat Types Release Fewer Celiac Disease Related T Cell Epitopes than Common Wheat upon Ex Vivo Human Gastrointestinal Digestion

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Ås, Norway
2
Institute of Food Science, National Research Council, 83100 Avellino, Italy
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital, 0456 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, 0372 Oslo, Norway
5
Department of Agriculture, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy
6
Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Ås, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091173
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 18 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Food Digestion)
Celiac disease (CeD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by immunogenic gluten peptides released during the gastrointestinal digestion of wheat. Our aim was to identify T cell epitope-containing peptides after ex vivo digestion of ancestral (einkorn, spelt and emmer) and common (hexaploid) wheat (Fram, Bastian, Børsum and Mirakel) using human gastrointestinal juices. Wheat porridge was digested using a static ex vivo model. Peptides released after 240 min of digestion were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). Ex vivo digestion released fewer T cell epitope-containing peptides from the ancestral wheat varieties (einkorn (n = 38), spelt (n = 45) and emmer (n = 68)) compared to the common wheat varieties (Fram (n = 72), Børsum (n = 99), Bastian (n = 155) and Mirakel (n = 144)). Neither the immunodominant 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin peptides, nor the 26mer γ-gliadin peptide, were found in any of the digested wheat types. In conclusion, human digestive juice was able to digest the 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin, and the 26mer γ-gliadin derived peptides, while their fragments still contained naive T cell reactive epitopes. Although ancestral wheat released fewer immunogenic peptides after human digestion ex vivo, they are still highly toxic to celiac patients. More general use of these ancient wheat variants may, nevertheless, reduce CeD incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: Celiac disease; wheat; ex vivo digestion; T cell epitope; immunogenic peptide Celiac disease; wheat; ex vivo digestion; T cell epitope; immunogenic peptide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asledottir, T.; Rehman, R.; Mamone, G.; Picariello, G.; Devold, T.G.; Vegarud, G.E.; Røseth, A.; Lea, T.E.; Halstensen, T.S.; Ferranti, P.; Uhlen, A.K. Ancestral Wheat Types Release Fewer Celiac Disease Related T Cell Epitopes than Common Wheat upon Ex Vivo Human Gastrointestinal Digestion. Foods 2020, 9, 1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091173

AMA Style

Asledottir T, Rehman R, Mamone G, Picariello G, Devold TG, Vegarud GE, Røseth A, Lea TE, Halstensen TS, Ferranti P, Uhlen AK. Ancestral Wheat Types Release Fewer Celiac Disease Related T Cell Epitopes than Common Wheat upon Ex Vivo Human Gastrointestinal Digestion. Foods. 2020; 9(9):1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091173

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asledottir, Tora, Rashida Rehman, Gianfranco Mamone, Gianluca Picariello, Tove G. Devold, Gerd E. Vegarud, Arne Røseth, Tor E. Lea, Trond S. Halstensen, Pasquale Ferranti, and Anne K. Uhlen. 2020. "Ancestral Wheat Types Release Fewer Celiac Disease Related T Cell Epitopes than Common Wheat upon Ex Vivo Human Gastrointestinal Digestion" Foods 9, no. 9: 1173. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091173

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