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Dietary Components, Microbial Metabolites and Human Health: Reading between the Lines

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Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Function and Regulation, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006, China
2
Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006, China
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State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University–Helmholtz Institute of Biotechnology, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
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Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
5
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Food, University of Peloponnese, 22131 Antikalamos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081045
Received: 18 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
Trillions of bacteria reside in the human gut and they metabolize dietary substances to obtain nutrients and energy while producing metabolites. Therefore, different dietary components could affect human health in various ways through microbial metabolism. Many such metabolites have been shown to affect human physiological activities, including short-chain fatty acids metabolized from carbohydrates; indole, kynurenic acid and para-cresol, metabolized from amino acids; conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid, metabolized from lipids. Here, we review the features of these metabolites and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms of their metabolisms by gut microbiota. We discuss the potential roles of these metabolites in health and diseases, and the interactions between host metabolism and the gut microbiota. We also show some of the major dietary patterns around the world and hope this review can provide insights into our eating habits and improve consumers’ health conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; amino acids; lipids; eating habits; human health carbohydrates; amino acids; lipids; eating habits; human health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, Y.; Bian, X.; Liu, J.; Zhu, M.; Li, L.; Yao, T.; Tang, C.; Ravichandran, V.; Liao, P.; Papadimitriou, K.; Yin, J. Dietary Components, Microbial Metabolites and Human Health: Reading between the Lines. Foods 2020, 9, 1045.

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