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Isorhamnetin and Hispidulin from Tamarix ramosissima Inhibit 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Trapping Phenylacetaldehyde as a Key Mechanism

1
Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education China, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing, Quality and Safety Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Xinjiang Production & Construction Group Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing in Xinjiang South, College of Life Science, Tarim University, Alar 843300, China
3
College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040420
Received: 7 March 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheep and Goat Meat Processing and Quality)
Tamarix has been widely used as barbecue skewers to obtain a good taste and a unique flavor of roast lamb in China. Many flavonoids have been identified from Tamarix, which is an important strategy employed to reduce the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in roast meat. Isorhamnetin, hispidulin, and cirsimaritin from Tamarix ramosissima bark extract (TRE) effectively inhibit the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant HAs in foods, both in roast lamb patties and in chemical models. According to the results of the GC-MS analysis, TRE and the three flavonoids significantly reduced the contents of phenylacetaldehyde, an important intermediate involved in PhIP formation at three levels. A subsequent ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis revealed that these flavonoids trapped phenylacetaldehyde by forming interaction adducts. The formation of three postulated adducts, 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)isorhamnetin, 6-C-(E-phenylethenyl)isorhamnetin and 8-C-(E-phenylethenyl)hispidulin, in the chemical models and roast lamb patties was further confirmed by a TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results demonstrate that TRE and the corresponding flavonoids trap phenylacetaldehyde to form adducts and thus inhibit PhIP formation, suggesting their great potential beneficial effects on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); flavonoid; flavonoid-phenylacetaldehyde adducts; model system; roast lamb patties 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); flavonoid; flavonoid-phenylacetaldehyde adducts; model system; roast lamb patties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, X.; Wang, W.; Bao, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Lu, Y.; Peng, Z.; Zhou, G. Isorhamnetin and Hispidulin from Tamarix ramosissima Inhibit 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Trapping Phenylacetaldehyde as a Key Mechanism. Foods 2020, 9, 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040420

AMA Style

Ren X, Wang W, Bao Y, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Lu Y, Peng Z, Zhou G. Isorhamnetin and Hispidulin from Tamarix ramosissima Inhibit 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Trapping Phenylacetaldehyde as a Key Mechanism. Foods. 2020; 9(4):420. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Xiaopu, Wei Wang, Yingjie Bao, Yuxia Zhu, Yawei Zhang, Yaping Lu, Zengqi Peng, and Guanghong Zhou. 2020. "Isorhamnetin and Hispidulin from Tamarix ramosissima Inhibit 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Trapping Phenylacetaldehyde as a Key Mechanism" Foods 9, no. 4: 420. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040420

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