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Open AccessArticle

Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated with Blood Pressure and Hypertension over 10-Years in Black South African Adults Undergoing Nutritional Transition

1
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
2
Centre of Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
4
Medical Research Council Unit: Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
5
Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research (AUTHeR), North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090394
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
Nutritional transition in Africa is linked with increased blood pressure (BP). We examined 10-year fatty acid status and longitudinal associations between individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), BP and status of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg and/or medication use) in black South Africans. We included 300 adults (>30 years) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study, and analysed data from three consecutive examinations (2005, 2010 and 2015 study years). Fatty acids in plasma phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We applied sequential linear mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized mixed models for the hypertension outcome, in the complete sample and separately in urban and rural subjects. Mean baseline systolic/diastolic BP was 137/89 mmHg. Ten-year hypertension status increased among rural (48.6% to 68.6%, p = 0.001) and tended to decrease among urban subjects (67.5% to 61.9%, p = 0.253). Regardless of urbanisation, n-6 PUFA increased and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) decreased over the 10-years. Subjects in the highest tertile of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) had 3.81 mmHg lower systolic (95% confidence interval (CI): −7.07, −0.54) and 3.82 mmHg lower diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI: −5.70, −1.95) compared to the reference tertile, irrespective of lifestyle and clinical confounders. Similarly, osbond acid (C22:5 n-6) was inversely associated with DBP. Over the 10-years, subjects in the highest EPA tertile presented with +2.92 and +1.94 mmHg higher SBP and DBP, respectively, and with 1.46 higher odds of being hypertensive. In black South African adults, individual plasma n-6 PUFA were inversely associated with BP, whereas EPA was adversely associated with hypertension, supporting implementation of dietary fat quality in national cardiovascular primary prevention strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: black Africans; blood pressure; hypertension; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; longitudinal study; nutritional transition; PUFA black Africans; blood pressure; hypertension; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; longitudinal study; nutritional transition; PUFA
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Zec, M.M.; Schutte, A.E.; Ricci, C.; Baumgartner, J.; Kruger, I.M.; Smuts, C.M. Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated with Blood Pressure and Hypertension over 10-Years in Black South African Adults Undergoing Nutritional Transition. Foods 2019, 8, 394.

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