Development and Characterization of Gelled Double Emulsions Based on Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Mucilage Mixed with Different Biopolymers and Loaded with Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis)
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Alimentos, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66455 San Nicolás de los Garza, NL, Mexico
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Agronomía, Francisco I. Madero S/N, Ex Hacienda el Cañada, 66050 Cd. Gral. Escobedo, NL, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120677
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 4 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Encapsulation in Food Industry)
The aim of this research was to develop and characterize five gelled double emulsions based on chia mucilage (CM) and different biopolymers (κ-carrageenan, C; locust bean gum, L; thixogum, T; and whey protein concentrate, W) loaded with green tea extract (GTE). Gelled double emulsions consisted of W1 (whey-protein-concentrate/sodium-azide/NaCl/GTE)/O and (PGPR/canola-oi)/W2 (CM, CMC, CML, CMT and CMW), and were characterized based on physicochemical properties during 35 days of storage. Optical microscopy clearly showed the drops of the internal phase surrounded by droplets of oil dispersed in the second aqueous phase; the droplet size was higher for CMT and lowest for CMW. In addition, all emulsions were highly stable at creaming and were effective in reducing the loss of antioxidant activity (88.82%) and total phenols (64.26%) during storage; CMT, CML and CM were the most effective. Furthermore, all emulsions showed a protective effect by modulating the release of the GTE in a simulated gastrointestinal environment, allowing a controlled release during the gastric-intestinal digestion phases and reaching its maximum release in the intestinal phase (64.57–83.31%). Thus, gelled double emulsions are an alternative for the preservation of GTE and could be a potential alternative for their application in the development of functional foods.