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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Transglutaminase on the Protein Network and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Asian Wheat Noodles

1
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC), Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117599, Singapore
2
Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120607
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
Wheat noodles are a staple commonly consumed in Asia, but high intakes have been associated with type 2 diabetes due to its rapid starch digestibility. We hypothesised that protein network-binding via transglutaminase (TG) would form a stronger barrier encapsulating the starch granules to limit enzymatic access and digestion. The amount of glucose release decreased significantly with increasing TG concentration, with a reduction of approximately 16% with 2% TG after 120 min of digestion. The slower rate of glucose release during the first 60 min of digestion for 2% compared to 0% TG suggested impeded first stage enzymatic access rather than second stage starch hydrolysis into glucose. Upon increasing the TG concentration, confocal microscopy revealed a denser protein network with increased connectivity, supported by a decrease in protein solubility and gelatinisation enthalpy, and increased firmness and work of shear. Therefore, transglutaminase can potentially be used to reduce starch digestibility in wheat noodles via protein network-binding. View Full-Text
Keywords: transglutaminase; wheat noodles; starch digestibility; glycaemia; in-vitro digestion transglutaminase; wheat noodles; starch digestibility; glycaemia; in-vitro digestion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wee, M.S.M.; Jeyakumar Henry, C. Effects of Transglutaminase on the Protein Network and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Asian Wheat Noodles. Foods 2019, 8, 607.

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